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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 187407, 8 pages
Research Article

Spectroscopic and Gas Chromatographic Studies of Pigments and Binders in Gdańsk Paintings of the 17th Century

1Department of Painting Technologies and Techniques, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Ulica Sienkiewicza 30/32, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ulica Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków, Poland
3Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Ulica Reymonta 23, 30-059 Krakow, Poland

Received 5 September 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013

Academic Editor: Yizhuang Xu

Copyright © 2013 Justyna Olszewska-Świetlik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This work presents spectroscopic (optical microscopy, OM; micro-Raman, Raman; and Fourier-transform adsorption infrared, FT-IR) and gas chromatographic studies of two famous panel paintings from the Gdańsk artists of the 17th century Golden Age, “Servilius Appius” by Isaac van den Blocke and “Allegory of Wealth” probably by Anton Möller. Application of the aforementioned methods allowed us to identify pigments and binders used in the panel paintings. In particular, it was determined that the yellow pigment used by both artists is lead-tin yellow type I (2PbO·SnO2), the white pigment is lead (II) carbonate hydroxide (2PbCO3 Pb(OH)2), and the ground layer material consist of chalk (CaCO3). The analysis showed also that in the case of “Allegory of Wealth,” the red layer consists not only of cinnabar (HgS) but also of lead-tin yellow type I.