Table 1: Comparison of the proposed methods with the reported spectrophotometric methods for determination of PZT.

Reagents   
(nm)
Linear range
( g mL−1)
(L mol−1 cm−1)LOD
( g mL−1)
RemarksRef.

Phenol red
Chlorophenol red
393
405
8.72–104.64
3.27–49.05
4.212 × 103  
9.624 × 103
Less sensitive, involves pH control, extraction step[12]
Iron(III)-potassium ferricyanide
Iron(III)-o-phenanthroline
Iron(III)-bipyridyl
750
510
520
3.0–15
0.5–8.0
2.0–16
2.581 × 104  
7.91 × 104  
3.24 × 104
0.37
0.21
0.45
Less sensitive, heating required. Multistep reaction[14]
Cobalt(II)-thiocyanate
Molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate
625
467
20–280
4.0–36
0.1973 × 104  
1.42 × 104
0.68
0.26
Less sensitive, involves pH control, extraction step[15]
Chromotrope 2B
Chromotrope 2R
528
526
4.36–52.32
4.36–39.24
1.023 × 104  
0.9062 × 104
0.07
0.114
Less sensitive, extraction step[16]
KMnO4-amaranth
KMnO4-acid orange II
KMnO4-indigo carmine
KMnO4-methylene blue
522
485
610
664
2.0–16
2.0–14
2.0–14
2.0–10
1.062 × 104  
1.193 × 104  
1.37 × 104  
1.484 × 104
0.30
0.16
0.21
0.18
Less sensitive[17]
Alizarin red sulphonate
Ammonium metavanadate
428
759
2.0–20
100–600
1.819 × 104  
0.7076 × 103
0.21
21
Less sensitive, involves pH control, extraction step
Heating required
[18]
Bromate-methyl orange
Bromate-indigo carmine
Bromate-thymol blue
Bromate-1,10-phenanthroline
Bromate-Fe(III)-thiocyanate
520
610
550
510
480
0.5–3.0
0.5–5.0
1.0–8.0
0.5–4.0
0.5–3.5
1.1114 × 105  
0.6242 × 105  
0.3658 × 105  
1.0152 × 105  
1.2558 × 105
0.094
0.086
0.25
0.072
0.102
Simple, highly sensitive, and no heating step.
No use of organic
solvent. Use of an eco-friendly brominating reagent.
Present work

: wavelength of maximum absorption; : molar absorptivity; LOD: limit of detection.