Table 2: Optical characteristics and statistical data for the regression equation of the proposed methods.

ParametersMethods
ABCDE

Wavelengths (nm)520610550510480
Beer’s law limit ( g mL−1)0.5–3.00.5–5.01.0–8.00.5–4.00.5–3.5
Molar absorptivity , (L mol−1 cm−1) × 1051.11140.62420.36581.01521.2558
Sandell's sensitivity (ng cm−2)39.2311.926.9842.9534.72
Linear regression equationa
 Intercept ( )0.00630.00710.00310.00681.186
 Slope ( )0.24740.08050.14020.2267
 Correlation coefficient ( )0.99970.99950.99990.99980.9998
Recoveryb  
Relative standard deviation, RSD%0.8871.030.971.350.92
Relative error, RE%0.9311.081.021.420.96
Limit of detection LOD, ( g mL−1)0.0940.0860.250.0720.102
Limit of quantification LOQ, ( g mL−1)0.310.2870.830.240.34
Calculated t-valuec0.640.470.680.1050.93
Calculated F-valuec2.132.852.534.972.27

, where is the concentration of PZT in g mL−1, is the absorbance units, is the intercept, and is the slope.
bAverage of six determinations.
cThe theoretical values of and are 2.57 and 5.05, respectively, at confidence limit at 95% confidence level and five degrees of freedom ( ).