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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2013, Article ID 797302, 7 pages
Research Article

Nonlinear Multivariate Calibration of Shelf Life of Preserved Eggs (Pidan) by Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Stacked Least Squares Support Vector Machine with Ensemble Preprocessing

1Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection & Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Chuxiong Normal University, Chuxiong 675000, China
3State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China

Received 15 May 2013; Accepted 16 August 2013

Academic Editor: Pedro D. Vaz

Copyright © 2013 Lu Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper aims at developing a rapid and nondestructive method for analyzing the shelf life of preserved eggs (pidan) by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and nonlinear multivariate calibration. A major concern with a nonlinear model is that the noncomposition-correlated spectral variations among pidan objects of different batches and production dates would unnecessarily increase model complexity and cause overfitting and degradation of prediction. To reduce the negative influence of unwanted spectral variations, stacked least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) with an ensemble of 62 commonly used preprocessing methods is proposed to automatically optimize data preprocessing and develop the nonlinear model. The analysis results indicate that stacked LS-SVM can obtain stable calibration model, and the prediction accuracy is improved compared with models with single-preprocessing methods. Since LS-SVM is much faster than its ordinary counterparts, stacked LS-SVM with ensemble preprocessing can be performed within an acceptable computational time. When the objects and spectral variations are very complex, the proposed method can provide a useful tool for data preprocessing and nonlinear multivariate calibration.