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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2013, Article ID 824817, 7 pages
Research Article

Determination of As, Cd, and Pb in Tap Water and Bottled Water Samples by Using Optimized GFAAS System with Pd-Mg and Ni as Matrix Modifiers

1Department of Sciences Education, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Biology, Samsun 19 Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey
4Karacabey MYO, Uludag University, Karacabey, Bursa, Turkey
5Department of Chemistry, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
6Department of Biology, Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey
7Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University, Elazig, Turkey

Received 6 June 2012; Accepted 30 July 2012

Academic Editor: Massimo Tallarida

Copyright © 2013 Sezgin Bakırdere et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Arsenic, lead, and cadmium were determined in tap and bottled water samples consumed in the west part of Turkey at trace levels. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used in all detections. All of the system parameters for each element were optimized to increase sensitivity. Pd-Mg mixture was selected as the best matrix modifier for As, while the highest signals were obtained for Pb and Cd in the case of Ni used as matrix modifier. Detection limits for As, Cd, and Pb were found to be 2.0, 0.036, and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. 78 tap water and 17 different brands of bottled water samples were analyzed for their As, Cd, and Pb contents under the optimized conditions. In all water samples, concentration of cadmium was found to be lower than detection limits. Lead concentration in the samples analyzed varied between N.D. and 12.66 ± 0.68 ng/mL. The highest concentration of arsenic was determined as 11.54 ± 2.79 ng/mL. Accuracy of the methods was verified by using a certified reference material, namely, Trace Element in Water, 1643e. Results found for As, Cd, and Pb in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values.