Table 1: Material parameters for numerical simulation tests of granular media.

NamesRange of particle size (m)Density
(kg·m−3)
Cohesion ×103 (Pa)Internal frictional angle (°)Dilation angle (°)Bulk modulus ×109 (Pa)Shear modulus ×109 (Pa)Tensile strength ×106 (Pa)

Soil (F)<0.00012150612780.070.030.05
Sand (S)0.0001~0.00523007532102.510.35
Gravel (G)0.005~0.062600132461323101.0