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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 153513, 20 pages
Research Article

Position, Energy, and Transit Time Distributions in a Hemispherical Deflector Analyzer with Position Sensitive Detector

1Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta, Turkey
2Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
3Tandem Lab, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, P.O. Box 60228, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Greece

Received 28 January 2015; Revised 11 May 2015; Accepted 12 May 2015

Academic Editor: Paola Luches

Copyright © 2015 Omer Sise and Theo J. M. Zouros. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Practical analytic equations, for the ideal field, and numerical results from SIMION simulations, for the fringing field, are presented for the exit radius and transit time of electrons in a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) over a wide range of analyzer parameters. Results are presented for a typically dimensioned HDA with mean radius  mm and interradial separation  mm able to accommodate a 40 mm diameter position sensitive detector (PSD). Results for three different entry positions are compared: (the conventional central entry) and two displaced (paracentric) entries:  mm and  mm. Exit spreads , and base energy resolution are computed for HDA pass energies , 100, 500, and 1000 eV, entry aperture sizes  mm, entry angular spreads °, and an electron beam with relative energy spread . Overall, under realistic conditions, both paracentric entries demonstrate near ideal field behavior and clear superiority over the conventional entry at . The  mm entry has better absolute energy and time spread resolutions, while the  mm has better relative energy resolutions, both offering attractive alternatives for time-of-flight and coincidence applications where both energy and timing resolutions are important.