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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2015, Article ID 563763, 8 pages
Research Article

Pencil Beam Spectral Measurements of Ce, Ho, Yb, and Ba Powders for Potential Use in Medical Applications

1Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, Rion, 265 00 Patras, Greece
2Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece

Received 29 October 2014; Revised 19 December 2014; Accepted 19 December 2014

Academic Editor: Eugen Culea

Copyright © 2015 N. Martini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the present study was to obtain modified X-ray spectra, by using appropriate filter materials for use in applications such as dual energy X-ray imaging. K-edge filtering technique was implemented in order to obtain narrow energy bands for both dual- and single-kVp techniques. Three lanthanide filters (cerium, holmium, and ytterbium) and a filter outside lanthanides (barium), with low K-edge, were used to modify the X-ray spectra. The X-ray energies that were used in this work ranged from 60 to 100 kVp. Relative root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of variation were used for filter selection. The increasing filter thicknesses led to narrower energy bands. For the dual-kVp technique, 0.7916 g/cm2 Ho, 0.9422 g/cm2 Yb, and 1.0095 g/cm2 Yb were selected for 70, 80, and 90 kVp, respectively. For the single-kVp technique 0.5991 g/cm2 Ce, 0.8750 g/cm2 Ba, and 0.8654 g/cm2 Ce were selected for 80, 90, and 100 kVp, respectively. The filtered X-ray spectra of this work, after appropriate modification, could be used in various X-ray applications, such as dual-energy mammography, bone absorptiometry, and digital tomosynthesis.