Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2016, Article ID 1617063, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1617063
Research Article

Depth-Sensitive Raman Investigation of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures: Absorption as a Tool for Variation of Exciting Light Penetration Depth

1Institute of Electron Technology, Aleja Lotników 36/42, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
2Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland

Received 27 September 2015; Accepted 10 November 2015

Academic Editor: Christoph Krafft

Copyright © 2016 Paweł Borowicz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Lai, X. B. Mei, W. R. Deal et al., “Sub 50 nm InP HEMT device with Fmax greater than 1 THz,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM '07), pp. 609–611, IEEE, Washington, DC, USA, December 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Krol, M. Sochacki, M. Turek et al., “Influence of nitrogen implantation on electrical properties of Al/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS structure,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 740–742, pp. 733–736, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Sarua, J. Hangfeng, M. Kuball et al., “Integrated micro-Raman/infrared thermography probe for monitoring of self-heating in AlGaN/GaN transistor structures,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 2438–2447, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. de Wolf, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–154, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. J. Harris, A. E. O'Neill, W. Yang et al., “Measurement of the state of stress in silicon with micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 7195–7201, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L.-Y. Yang, X.-Y. Xue, K. Zhang, X.-F. Zheng, X.-H. Ma, and Y. Hao, “Channel temperature determination of a multifinger AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor using a micro-Raman technique,” Chinese Physics B, vol. 21, no. 7, Article ID 077304, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Zhang, S. Feng, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and C. Guo, “Determination of channel temperature for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by high spectral resolution micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Semiconductors, vol. 33, no. 4, Article ID 044003, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. J. de Grauw, N. M. Sijtsema, C. Otto, and J. Greve, “Axial resolution of confocal raman microscopes: gaussian beam theory and practice,” Journal of Microscopy, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 273–279, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Borowicz, A. Kuchuk, Z. Adamus et al., “Visible and deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigation of structural changes and redistribution of carbon in ni-based ohmic contacts on silicon carbide,” ISRN Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, Article ID 852405, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. K. C. Chang, N. T. Nuhfer, L. M. Porter, and Q. Wahab, “High-carbon concentrations at the silicon dioxide-silicon carbide interface identified by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, no. 14, pp. 2186–2188, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. Lu, L. C. Feldman, Y. Song et al., “Graphitic features on SiC surface following oxidation and etching using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 16, pp. 3495–3497, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Sasaki, Y. Nishina, M. Sato, and K. Okamura, “Raman study of SiC fibres made from polycarbosilane,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 443–448, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Gavrikov, A. Knizhnik, A. Safonov et al., “First-principles-based investigation of kinetic mechanism of SiC(0001) dry oxidation including defect generation and passivation,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 9, Article ID 093508, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Physical Review B—Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 61, no. 20, Article ID 14095, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. C. Burton, L. Sun, F. H. Long, Z. C. Feng, and I. T. Ferguson, “First- and second-order Raman scattering from semi-insulating 4H-SiC,” Physical Review B, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 7282–7284, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. Windl, K. Karch, P. Pavone et al., “Second-order Raman spectra of SiC: experimental and theoretical results from ab initio phonon calculations,” Physical Review B, vol. 49, no. 13, pp. 8764–8767, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Borowicz, T. Gutt, T. Małachowski, and M. Latek, “Carbonic inclusions on SiC/SiO2 interface investigated with Raman Scattering,” Diamond & Related Materials, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 665–674, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman spectrum of silicon,” Physical Review B, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 3685–3697, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Chabli, “Optical characterization of layers for silicon microelectronics,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 40, no. 3-4, pp. 263–274, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Borowicz, M. Latek, W. Rzodkiewicz, A. Łaszcz, A. Czerwinski, and J. Ratajczak, “Deep-ultraviolet Raman investigation of silicon oxide: thin film on silicon substrate versus bulk material,” Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 4, Article ID 045003, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. G. Revesz and H. L. Hughes, “The structural aspects of non-crystalline SiO2 films on silicon: a review,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 328, no. 1–3, pp. 48–63, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. A. Volodin and V. A. Sachkov, “Improved model of optical phonon confinement in silicon nanocrystals,” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Naumenko, V. Snitka, M. Duch, N. Torras, and J. Esteve, “Stress mapping on the porous silicon microcapsules by Raman microscopy,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 98, pp. 488–491, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Ohno, M. Akita, S. Kishimoto, K. Maezawa, and T. Mizutani, “Temperature distributions in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs measured by micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Physica Status Solidi (C), no. 1, pp. 57–60, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Rajasingam, J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball et al., “Micro-Raman temperature measurements for electric field assessment in active AlGaN-GaN HFETs,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 456–458, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Jasny, “Multifunctional spectrofluorimetric system,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 149–173, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. V. Tkachenko, “Introduction,” in Optical Spectroscopy. Methods and Instrumentation, chapter 1, pp. 2–5, Elsevier, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Born and E. Wolf, “Optics of metals,” in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, chapter 13, p. 614, Pergamon Press, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. N. Polyanskiy, “Refractive index database,” 2015, http://refractiveindex.info/.
  30. B. Dietrich, V. Bukalo, A. Fischer et al., “Raman-spectroscopic determination of inhomogeneous stress in submicron silicon devices,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1176–1178, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. H. DiStefano, “Field dependent internal photoemission probe of the electronic structure of the Si-SiO2 interface,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 856–859, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Herman and R. V. Kasowski, “Electronic structure of defects at Si/SiO2 interfaces,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 395–401, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Ourmazd, D. W. Taylor, J. A. Rentschler, and J. Bevk, “SiSiO2 transformation: interfacial structure and mechanism,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 213–216, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. E. Aspnes and J. B. Theeten, “Optical properties of the interface between Si and its thermally grown oxide,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 1046–1050, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. R. Helms, “Morphology and electronic structure of Si–SiO2 interfaces and Si surfaces,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–614, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. J. Himpsel, F. R. McFeely, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, J. A. Yarmoff, and G. Hollinger, “Microscopic structure of the SiO2/Si interface,” Physical Review B, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 6084–6096, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Ohdomari, H. Akatsu, Y. Yamakoshi, and K. Kishimoto, “Study of the interfacial structure between Si (100) and thermally grown SiO2 using a ball-and-spoke model,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 3751–3754, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Ohdomari, T. Mihara, and K. Kai, “Computer simulation of high-resolution transmission electron microscope images based on ball-and-spoke models of (100) Si/SiO2 interface,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 3900–3904, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. M. Banaszak Holl, S. Lee, and F. R. McFeely, “Core level photoemission and the structure of the Si/SiO2 interface: a reappraisal,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 1097–1099, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. M. Feenstra and G. S. Oehrlein, “Surface morphology of oxidized and ion-etched silicon by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 97–99, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Zhao, P. R. Lefebvre, and E. A. Irene, “A spectroscopic immersion ellipsometry study of SiO2-Si interface roughness for electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermally oxidized Si surfaces,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 313-314, pp. 286–291, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. M. Johnson, D. K. Biegelsen, M. D. Moyer, S. T. Chang, E. H. Poindexter, and P. J. Caplan, “Characteristic electronic defects at the SiSiO2 interface,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 563–565, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. J. Hinds, F. Wang, D. M. Wolfe, C. L. Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2171–2176, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. D. Efremov, V. V. Bolotov, V. A. Volodin, and S. A. Kochubei, “Raman scattering anisotropy in a system of (1 1 0)-oriented silicon nanocrystals formed in a-Si film,” Solid State Communications, vol. 108, no. 9, pp. 645–648, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. de Wolf, C. Jian, and W. M. van Spengen, “The investigation of microsystems using Raman spectroscopy,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 213–223, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. P. Ling, J. Ge, R. Stangl, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Detailed micro raman spectroscopy analysis of doped silicon thin film layers and its feasibility for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells,” Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 5, Article ID 38124, pp. 1–14, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. A. Parr, C. Bodart, D. Demonchy, and D. J. Gardiner, “Depth profiling variously deposited LPCVD polysilicon films using Raman microscopy,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 608–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, and P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Applied Physics A, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 287–297, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. A. Parr, D. J. Gardiner, R. T. Carline, D. O. King, and G. M. Williams, “Structural variations in polysilicon, associated with deposition temperature and degree of anneal,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 207–212, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Kawata, S. Nadahara, J. Shiozawa, M. Watanabe, and T. Katoda, “Characterization of stress in doped and undoped polycrystalline silicon before and after annealing or oxidation with laser raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 407–411, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. C. Teixeira, I. Doi, M. B. P. Zakia, J. A. Diniz, and J. W. Swart, “Micro-raman stress characterization of polycrystalline silicon films grown at high temperature,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 112, no. 2-3, pp. 160–164, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. X.-Z. Bo, N. Yao, S. R. Shieh, T. S. Duffy, and J. C. Sturm, “Large-grain polycrystalline silicon films with low intragranular defect density by low-temperature solid-phase crystallization without underlying oxide,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 2910–2915, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Ogura, K. Egami, and M. Kimura, “Minimization of residual stress in SOI films by using AlN interlaid insulator,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. L669–L671, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Kitahara, T. Ishii, J. Suzuki, T. Bessyo, and N. Watanabe, “Characterization of defects and stress in polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates by raman microscopy,” International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2011, Article ID 632139, 14 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. K. J. Kingma and R. J. Hemley, “Raman spectroscopic study of microcrystalline silica,” American Mineralogist, vol. 79, no. 3-4, pp. 269–273, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Zhang and J. F. Scott, “Raman studies of oxide minerals: a retrospective on cristobalite phases,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter: Condensed Matter, vol. 19, no. 27, Article ID 275201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. C. Palmer, R. J. Hemley, and C. T. Prewitt, “Raman spectroscopic study of high-pressure phase transitions in cristobalite,” Physics & Chemistry of Minerals, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 481–488, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Mohanty, V. Ortalan, N. D. Browning, I. Arslan, Y. Fei, and K. Landskron, “Direct formation of mesoporous coesite single crystals from periodic mesoporous silica at extreme pressure,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 49, no. 25, pp. 4301–4305, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Nakano, L. Marville, and R. Reif, “Raman scattering in polycrystalline silicon doped with boron,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 3641–3647, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Zorabedian and F. Adar, “Measurement of local stress in laserrecrystallized lateral epitaxial silicon films over silicon dioxide using Raman scattering,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 177–179, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. A. Volodin, M. D. Efremov, V. A. Gritsenko, and S. A. Kochubei, “Raman study of silicon nanocrystals formed in SiNx films by excimer laser or thermal annealing,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1212–1214, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus