Figure 2: Diagnosis of breast cancer with Raman spectroscopy. (a) Mean Raman spectra and SHINERS spectra of breast tissues: normal breast (NB) tissues, fibroadenoma (FD), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). (b) Corresponding images of frozen sections were stained with HE. (c) Corresponding images of frozen sections without shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs). (d) Corresponding images of frozen sections with SHINs. The images show an area of 0.8 × 0.6 mm2 [24, 25].