Journal of Spectroscopy The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Construction of Spectral Discoloration Model for Red Lead Pigment by Aging Test and Simulating Degradation Experiment Thu, 01 Sep 2016 16:05:05 +0000 The construction of spectral discoloration model, based on aging test and simulating degradation experiment, was proposed to detect the aging degree of red lead pigment in ancient murals and to reproduce the spectral data supporting digital restoration of the ancient murals. The degradation process of red lead pigment under the aging test conditions was revealed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrophotometer. The simulating degradation experiment was carried out by proportionally mixing red lead and lead dioxide with referring to the results of aging test. The experimental result indicated that the pure red lead was gradually turned into black lead dioxide, and the amount of tiny particles of the aging sample increased faced with aging process. Both the chroma and lightness of red lead pigment decreased with discoloration, and its hue essentially remains unchanged. In addition, the spectral reflectance curves of the aging samples almost started rising at about 550 nm with the inflection moving slightly from about 570 nm to 550 nm. The spectral reflectance of samples in long- and in short-wavelength regions was fitted well with the logarithmic and linear function. The spectral discoloration model was established, and the real aging red lead pigment in Dunhuang murals was measured and verified the effectiveness of the model. Jinxing Liang, Xiaoxia Wan, Chan Li, Junfeng Li, Qiang Liu, and Qian Cao Copyright © 2016 Jinxing Liang et al. All rights reserved. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of “Bisphenol A” Tue, 23 Aug 2016 14:24:18 +0000 FTIR (400–4000 cm−1) spectra of “Bisphenol A” are presented. Absorption peaks (400–4000 cm−1) are assigned on the basis of Density Functional Theory (DFT) with configuration as B3LYP 6-311G++ (3df 3pd). Calculated absorption peaks are in reasonable reconciliation with experimental absorption peaks after scaling with scale factor of 0.9679 except C-H and O-H stretching vibrations. Ramzan Ullah, Ishaq Ahmad, and Yuxiang Zheng Copyright © 2016 Ramzan Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Oxidative Polymerization of Hydroquinone in the Presence of Hexavalent Chromium Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:11:36 +0000 Polyphenol polymerization receives much scientific attentions because it is an important reaction of humification processes. Through an oxidative polymerization reaction (OPR), hydroquinone (H2Q), a naturally occurring compound, has been found to be a vital precursor of humic substances in soils. Chromate (Cr(VI)), a strong oxidant, is widely distributed in the environment due to the inappropriate disposal of Cr-containing wastes. The OPR of H2Q in the presence of Cr(VI) may occur naturally. In the study, it was found that 400 mg L−1 H2Q could be polymerized at pH 3.0 with 105 mg L−1 Cr(VI). The results of FT-IR revealed the presence of both hydroquinone and benzoquinone nuclei in the polymer. The spectra of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) demonstrated a decrease in Cr(VI) content during the OPR of H2Q. Based on the results of linear combination fitting (LCF) for the spectra of XANES, the proportions of Cr species in the precipitates mainly consisted of Cr(OH)3, and Cr-carboxylate contents increased gradually from 15.3 to 25.5% over the reaction time. After acidizing the supernatants at pH 1.0 for 1 d, Cr(III)-HA dominated Cr(III) species. This suggested that humic-like substances were formed during OPR of H2Q, possibly through the formation of Cr(III)-organic complex. Ching-Yun Cheng, Ya-Ting Chan, Yu-Min Tzou, Kai-Yue Chen, and Yu-Ting Liu Copyright © 2016 Ching-Yun Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Polyurethane Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide, FTIR, Raman, and XRD Studies Sun, 14 Aug 2016 13:43:42 +0000 Recently, graphene and other graphene-based materials have become an essential part of composite science and technology. Their unique properties are not only restricted to graphene but also shared with derivative compounds like graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized graphene, and so forth. One of the most structurally important materials, graphene oxide (GO), is prepared by the oxidation of graphite. Though removal of the oxide groups can create vacancies and structural defects, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is used in composites as effective filler similar to GO. Authors developed a new polyurethane nanocomposite using a derivative of grapheme, thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO), to modify the matrix of polyurethane elastomers, by rGO. Michał Strankowski, Damian Włodarczyk, Łukasz Piszczyk, and Justyna Strankowska Copyright © 2016 Michał Strankowski et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of High Voltage Insulators Made of Ceramic Using Spectrophotometry Sun, 14 Aug 2016 11:51:11 +0000 The paper presents results of comparative analysis of optical signals emitted by partial discharges occurring on three types of high voltage insulators made of porcelain. The research work consisted of diagnosis of the following devices: a long rod insulator, a cap insulator, and an insulating cylinder. For optical signal registration a spectrophotometer was applied. All measurements were performed under laboratory conditions by changing the value of partial discharges generation voltage. For the cylindrical insulator also the distance between high voltage and ground electrodes was subjected for investigation as a factor having influence on partial discharges. The main contribution which resulted from the studies is statement that application of spectrophotometer enables faster recognition of partial discharges, as compared to standard methods. Paweł Frącz, Ireneusz Urbaniec, Tomasz Turba, and Sławomir Krzewiński Copyright © 2016 Paweł Frącz et al. All rights reserved. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts Sun, 31 Jul 2016 14:08:59 +0000 Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum), quince (Cydonia oblonga), chestnut (Castanea sativa), fig (Ficus carica), walnut (Juglans cinerea), black mulberry (Morus nigra), and white mulberry (Morus alba) leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively. Azat Akbal, M. Haluk Turkdemir, Ahmet Cicek, and Bulent Ulug Copyright © 2016 Azat Akbal et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Optical Spectroscopic and Imaging Methods for Medicine and Biology Wed, 27 Jul 2016 12:20:34 +0000 Yu Shang, Zhiyu Qian, Rickson C. Mesquita, and Mathieu Dehaes Copyright © 2016 Yu Shang et al. All rights reserved. Combining Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Rapid Recognition of an Hg-Contaminated Plant Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:39:49 +0000 The feasibility of rapid recognition of an Hg-contaminated plant as a soil pollution indicator was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics. The stem and leave of a native plant, Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb. (MFLW), were collected from Hg-contaminated areas () as well as from regular areas (). The samples were dried and crushed and the powders were sieved through an 80-mesh sieve. Reference analysis of Hg levels was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The actual Hg contents of contaminated and normal samples were 16.2–30.5 and 0.0–0.1 mg/Kg, respectively. The NIRS measurements of impacted sample powders were collected in the mode of reflectance. The DUPLEX algorithm was utilized to split the NIRS data into representative training and test sets. Different spectral preprocessing methods were performed to remove the unwanted and noncomposition-correlated spectral variations. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA) based on the raw, smoothed, second-order derivative (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV) data, respectively. The prediction accuracy obtained by PLSDA with each data preprocessing option was 100%, indicating pattern recognition of Hg-contaminated MFLW samples using NIRS data was in perfect consistence with the ICP-AES results. NIRS combined with chemometrics will provide a tool to screen the Hg-contaminated MFLW, which can be potentially used as an indicator of soil pollution. Bang-Cheng Tang, Hai-Yan Fu, Qiao-Bo Yin, Zeng-Yan Zhou, Wei Shi, Lu Xu, and Yuan-Bin She Copyright © 2016 Bang-Cheng Tang et al. All rights reserved. Kinetic Parameters during Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Monomer Polymerization by ATR-FTIR: The Influence of Photoinitiator and Light Curing Source Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:41:08 +0000 This study aimed to analyze the kinetic parameters of two monomers using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR): 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl-1-oxy)-phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The following were calculated to evaluate the kinetic parameters: maximum conversion rate (), time at the maximum polymerization rate (), conversion at , and total conversion recorded at the maximum conversion point after 300 s. Camphorquinone (CQ) and phenyl propanedione (PPD) were used in this study as photoinitiators, whereas N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) amine was used as a coinitiator. LED apparatus and halogen lamp were used in turn to evaluate the effect that light source had on the monomer kinetics. The mass concentration ratio for the three resin preparations was 0.7 : 0.3 for Bis-GMA and TEGDMA: R1 (CQ + DMPT), R2 (PPD + DMPT), and R3 (PPD + CQ + DMPT). The PPD association with the CQ photoinitiator altered the polymerization kinetics compared to a resin containing only the CQ photoinitiator. The light sources exhibited no significant differences for of R1 and R3. Resins containing only the PPD initiator exhibited a higher than those containing only CQ. However, the decreased for resins containing the PPD photoinitiator. Aline B. Denis, Cristina A. Diagone, Ana M. G. Plepis, and Rommel B. Viana Copyright © 2016 Aline B. Denis et al. All rights reserved. A Study of the Far Infrared Spectrum of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine Using THz-TDS, FTIR, and Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Methods Wed, 13 Jul 2016 12:51:47 +0000 The far infrared spectrum of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine has been studied by combining THz–TDS and FTIR characterization techniques with theoretical studies based on semiempirical quantum chemistry methods. A strong spectral peak at 60 cm−1 has been identified, which constitutes the main signature of the material in the terahertz band. Calculated molecular vibrations are in good qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with both the THz-TDS and FTIR experiments. In comparison to previous DFT-based studies, the semiempirical approach chosen herein, suitable for parallel multi-core and GPU acceleration, allows for a full study using periodic boundary conditions and no further approximations within a constrained computing time. Pedro Chamorro-Posada, Iosody Silva-Castro, José Vázquez-Cabo, Pablo Martín-Ramos, José María López-Santos, and Jesús Martín-Gil Copyright © 2016 Pedro Chamorro-Posada et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Fullerenes with Organosilanes in the Ionization Chamber of a Mass Spectrometer under Electron Impact and the Reaction of C60 with Tetraphenylsilane in Solution under UV Irradiation Tue, 28 Jun 2016 09:09:23 +0000 C60 was shown to react with organosilanes Me4Si, Ph2SiH2, Ph2MeSiH, Ph4Si, and α-naphthylphenylmethylsilane in the electron ionization ion source of a mass spectrometer with the transfer of the corresponding organic radicals (Me, Ph, and α-naphthyl) from the silanes to the fullerene. The reactions were accompanied by hydrogen addition to some products and hydrogen loss from them. C70 reacted with Me4Si analogously. A reaction mechanism involving homolytic dissociation of the silanes under electron impact to the corresponding organic radicals, which react further with C60 at the surface of the ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer to give the respective adducts, was offered. A mechanistic study of the reaction of C60 with Me4Si supported it. No silicon containing derivatives of the fullerenes were found. C60 reacted with Ph4Si in solution under UV irradiation in a similar fashion furnishing phenyl derivatives of the fullerene. These results provide an additional support to the hypothesis formulated earlier that the homolytic reactive mass spectrometry of fullerenes (the reactions of fullerenes with other species in the ionization chambers of mass spectrometers and their mass spectral monitoring) can predict the reactivity of them toward the same reagents in solution to a significant extent. Yury I. Lyakhovetsky, Elena A. Shilova, Alexandra P. Pleshkova, Alexander I. Belokon, Sergey O. Yakushin, and Boris L. Tumanskii Copyright © 2016 Yury I. Lyakhovetsky et al. All rights reserved. Applications of Spectroscopy in Environmental Monitoring of Gases and Aerosols Tue, 21 Jun 2016 07:06:25 +0000 Arnaud Cuisset, Dean S. Venables, Xiaoming Gao, and Hassen Aroui Copyright © 2016 Arnaud Cuisset et al. All rights reserved. Spectroscopic Investigations, DFT Calculations, and Molecular Docking Studies of the Anticonvulsant (2E)-2-[3-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene]-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazinecarboxamide Wed, 25 May 2016 11:10:53 +0000 Drug discovery for the management of neurological disorders is a challenging arena in medicinal chemistry. Vibrational spectral studies of (2E)-2-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene]-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazinecarboxamide ((2E)-IPPMP) have been recorded and analyzed to identify the functional groups and intermolecular/intramolecular interactions of the title molecule. The blue shift of the C-H stretching wavenumber reveals the presence of improper C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers, Frontier orbital energy, and natural bond orbital analyses have been carried out using density functional theory with a B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of the basis set. The vibrational modes have been unambiguously assigned using potential energy distribution analysis. The scaled wavenumbers are in good agreement with the experimental results. Natural bond orbital analysis has confirmed the intermolecular/intramolecular charge transfer interactions. HOMO-LUMO analysis was carried out to explore charge delocalization on the (2E)-IPPMP molecule. A molecular docking study has supported the anticonvulsant activity of the title molecule. Reem I. Al-Wabli, Devarasu Manimaran, Liji John, Isaac Hubert Joe, Nadia G. Haress, and Mohamed I. Attia Copyright © 2016 Reem I. Al-Wabli et al. All rights reserved. Background Radiance Estimation for Gas Plume Quantification for Airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Imaging Thu, 19 May 2016 09:48:29 +0000 Hyperspectral imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) is a mean that is proving its worth in the characterization of gaseous effluent. Indeed the spectral and spatial resolution of acquisition instruments is steadily decreasing, making the gases characterization increasingly easy in the LWIR domain. The majority of literature algorithms exploit the plume contribution to the radiance corresponding to the difference of radiance between the plume-present and plume-absent pixels. Nevertheless, the off-plume radiance is unobservable using a single image. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve trace gas concentration from airborne infrared hyperspectral data. More particularly the outlined method improves the existing background radiance estimation approach to deal with heterogeneous scenes corresponding to industrial scenes. It consists in performing a classification of the scene and then applying a principal components analysis based method to estimate the background radiance on each cluster stemming from the classification. In order to determine the contribution of the classification to the background radiance estimation, we compared the two approaches on synthetic data and Telops Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Imaging Hyper-Cam LW airborne acquisition above ethylene release. We finally show ethylene retrieved concentration map and estimate flow rate of the ethylene release. Ramzi Idoughi, Thomas H. G. Vidal, Pierre-Yves Foucher, Marc-André Gagnon, and Xavier Briottet Copyright © 2016 Ramzi Idoughi et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Quantitation of Melamine in Milk by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Tue, 17 May 2016 12:57:11 +0000 Melamine is a nitrogen-rich substance and has been illegally used to increase the apparent protein content in food products such as milk. Therefore, it is imperative to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methods to determine melamine in human foods. Current analytical methods for melamine are mainly chromatography-based methods, which are time-consuming and expensive and require complex pretreatment and well-trained technicians. The present paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for identifying and quantifying melamine in liquor milk. A total of 75 samples were prepared. Uninformative variable elimination-partial least square (UVE-PLS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to construct quantitative and qualitative models, respectively. Based on the ratio of performance to standard deviate (RPD), UVE-PLS model with 3 components resulted in a better solution. The PLS-DA model achieved an accuracy of 100% and outperformed the optimal reference model of soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Such a method can serve as a potential tool for rapid screening of melamine in milk products. Tong Wu, Hui Chen, Zan Lin, and Chao Tan Copyright © 2016 Tong Wu et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Structural and Photoluminescence for Al-Doped CdO Thin Films Sun, 15 May 2016 07:33:14 +0000 Al-doped CdO thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different deposition time and substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction showed that the changes in the intensities of the (200), (220), and (311) planes followed a similar trend with increase in deposition time. The surface of the thin film was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Grain sizes of Al-doped CdO thin films increased significantly with increasing deposition time. The film thicknesses were 0.09, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.225 μm for the deposition times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the Al-doped CdO thin films were measured at room temperature. The photoluminescence wavelength changed in the sequence, green, blue, green, and blue, with increasing deposition time, which indicates that blue light emitting films can be fabricated by adjusting the processing parameters. Bong Ju Lee and Jin Jeong Copyright © 2016 Bong Ju Lee and Jin Jeong. All rights reserved. Studies on Structural and Morphological Properties of Multidoped Ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095O () as Solid Solutions Tue, 10 May 2016 14:13:48 +0000 The nanopowdery solid solutions of multidoped ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095 () with the fluorite type crystal structure of CeO2 were synthesized for the first time. Two synthesis procedures were applied: the modified glycine-nitrate procedure (MGNP method) and room temperature self-propagating reaction (SPRT method). All nanopowders were characterized by XRPD analysis, Raman spectroscopy, low temperature nitrogen physisorption, TEM, and SEM methods. According to the XRPD and Raman spectroscopy results, single phase solid solutions of fluorite structure were evidenced regardless of the number of dopants and synthesis procedure. Both XRPD and TEM were analyses evidenced nanometer particle dimensions. The SPRT method results in obtaining sample with higher specific surface area, smaller crystallite and particles sizes, and the same values of the lattice parameter in comparison to pure CeO2. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to the oxygen vacancies introduced into the ceria lattice when Ce4+ ions were replaced with cations (dopants) of lower valence state (3+), which may indicate the potential improvement of ionic conductivity. Additionally, the presence of oxygen vacancies in the lattice ceria, as well as very developed grain boundaries, gives a new possibility for potential application of obtained nanopowders in the area of room temperature ferromagnetism as spintronics. Marija Stojmenović, Maja C. Pagnacco, Vladimir Dodevski, Jelena Gulicovski, Milan Žunić, and Snežana Bošković Copyright © 2016 Marija Stojmenović et al. All rights reserved. Ultra-Thin Films of Poly(acrylic acid)/Silver Nanocomposite Coatings for Antimicrobial Applications Thu, 05 May 2016 07:12:50 +0000 In this work not only colloids of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) but thin films (10 nm) also were deposited using electrospray deposition technique (ESD). A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and ascorbic acid (AA) were utilized to reduce the silver ions to generate Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix. Moreover, sodium tricitrate was used to stabilize the prepared colloids. The obtained colloids and films were characterized using UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-Vis results reveal that an absorption peak at 425 nm was observed in presence of PAA-AgNO3-AA-citrate-NaBH4. This peak is attributed to the well-known surface plasmon resonance of the silver bound in Ag-NPs, while the reduction was rendering and/or inhibiting in absence of the AA and citrate. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the mechanism of the reaction process of silver nitrate with PAA. TEM images showed the well dispersion of Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix with average particle size of 8 nm. The antimicrobial studies showed that the Ag-NPs embedded in the PAA matrix have proven to have a significant antimicrobial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans. Alaa Fahmy, Wael H. Eisa, Mohamed Yosef, and Ali Hassan Copyright © 2016 Alaa Fahmy et al. All rights reserved. Stretched Gelatin Phantom for Detection of Residual Dipolar Couplings in MR Spectra and Data Analysis of Carnosine Sat, 30 Apr 2016 07:54:17 +0000 Peak splitting due to the residual dipolar coupling (RDC) represents a potentially applicable spectral parameter for diagnostic purposes. Several of the skeletal muscle metabolites were previously reported to display the RDC splitting in in vivo MR spectra. We constructed an in vitro model consisting of mechanically stretched gelatin cylinder soaked with the muscle metabolite carnosine. We describe the preparation procedure of an upscaled 50 mL stretched gelatin sample with carnosine that can be used as a phantom for setting-up and testing of spectroscopic measurements of RDC in a MR scanner. We also report on analysis of the RDC splittings in 1H and 13C high resolution MR spectra of carnosine. Karel Bernášek, Marián Grocký, Martin Burian, and Jan Lang Copyright © 2016 Karel Bernášek et al. All rights reserved. Microanalysis of Organic Pigments in Ancient Textiles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Agar Gel Matrices Wed, 27 Apr 2016 06:12:08 +0000 We review some new methods based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the nondestructive/minimally invasive identification of organic colorants in objects whose value or function precludes sampling, such as historic and archeological textiles, paintings, and drawing. We discuss in detail the methodology we developed for the selective extraction and identification of anthraquinones and indigoids in the typical concentration used in textiles by means of an ecocompatible homogeneous nanostructured agar matrix. The extraction system was modulated according to the chemical properties of the target analyte by choosing appropriate reagents for the extraction and optimizing the extraction time. The system has been found to be extremely stable, easy to use and produce, easy to store, and at the same time able to be analyzed even after long time intervals, maintaining its enhancement properties unaltered, without the detriment of the extracted compound. Highly structured SERS band intensities have been obtained from the extracted dyes adopting laser light excitations at 514.5 and 785 nm of a micro-Raman setup. This analytical method has been found to be extremely safe for the analyzed substrates, thus being a promising procedure for the selective analysis and detection of molecules at low concentration in the field of artworks conservation. Marilena Ricci, Cristiana Lofrumento, Emilio Castellucci, and Maurizio Becucci Copyright © 2016 Marilena Ricci et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Au Nanoparticles Tue, 26 Apr 2016 13:54:34 +0000 A new method using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with Au nanoparticles was established for the rapid detection of benzylpenicillin potassium (PG) residues in duck meat. Au nanoparticles were used as SERS enhancement substrate, and the maximum absorption peak of Au nanoparticles using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer was 548 nm. In the research, the SERS spectra of PG solutions and PG duck meat extract as well as their vibrational assignment were analyzed. The effects of Au nanoparticles addition, sample addition, NaCl solution addition, and adsorption time on the SERS intensities of PG duck meat extract were discussed. It is revealed that a good linearity can be obtained between the SERS intensities at 993 cm−1 and the PG residues concentrations (0.5~15.0 mg·L−1) detected in duck meat extract. The linear equation was , and the determination coefficient was 0.9553. The determination coefficient of PG in duck meat extract between the actual values and the predictive values was 0.9757, and the root mean square error (RMSEP) was 0.6496 mg/L. The recovery rate of PG in duck meat extract was 90~121%. The results showed that the method using SERS with Au nanoparticles could pave a new way for the rapid detection of PG residues in duck meat. Yijie Peng, Muhua Liu, Jinhui Zhao, Haichao Yuan, Yao Li, Jinjiang Tao, and Hongqing Guo Copyright © 2016 Yijie Peng et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Lead on the Interpretation of Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Tue, 26 Apr 2016 11:52:06 +0000 This study is devoted to tracing and identifying the elements available in bone sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The bone samples were prepared from the thigh of laboratory rats, which consumed 325.29 g/mol lead acetate having 4 mM concentration in specified time duration. About 76 atomic lines have been analyzed and we found that the dominant elements are Ca I, Ca II, Mg I, Mg II, Fe I, and Fe II. Temperature curve and bar graph were drawn to compare bone elements of group B which consumed lead with normal group, group A, in the same laboratory conditions. Plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density were determined by considering Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma. An inverse relationship has been detected between lead absorption and elements like Calcium and Magnesium absorption comparing elemental values for both the groups. Abdolhamed Shahedi, Esmaeil Eslami, and Mohammad Reza Nourani Copyright © 2016 Abdolhamed Shahedi et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Optical Characterization of High Density Au/PAA Nanoarrays Sun, 24 Apr 2016 07:16:19 +0000 Hexagonal nanoarrays of Au nanorods and nanopillar were deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA) membranes utilizing dc electrodeposition. The surface morphologies and optical properties were characterized by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The optical reflectance spectra of the as-prepared, pore widened, and 2D-Au nanorods-coated PAA membranes were studied in detail. The effects of the angle of incident, pore widening time, and electrodeposition time on the characteristic peaks positions and intensities of the fabricated nanoarrays were addressed. As the angle of incident increased, the interference peaks and transverse surface resonance are shifted to longer wavelengths, but the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance is shifted to shorter wavelengths. Also, the reflected intensities are decreased linearly for the as-prepared sample and decreased exponentially for Au/PAA samples. Using the modified Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model, the energy gap is increased from 2.83 to 3.06 eV and the refractive index is decreased from 1.84 to 1.36 for the as-prepared and 70 min pore widened PAA membranes, respectively. Based on the advantages of the fabrication approach and the enhanced and controlled properties, this generation of Au/PAA arrays can be used as efficient building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanophotonic devices. Mohamed Shaban Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Shaban. All rights reserved. Study on the Fluorescence Spectra Characteristics of Vinegar-Water Solutions Thu, 21 Apr 2016 13:36:28 +0000 Fluorescence spectra and polarization spectra of vinegar-water solutions with different concentration of CH3COOH have been studied. The characteristics and mechanism of fluorescence spectra are discussed, and polarization degree is calculated. Vinegar-water solutions are excited by ultraviolet (UV) light at 380 nm. The characteristic fluorescence peaks of the solution were identified at 445 nm and 470 nm. The type of emission fluorescence is . With the increasing concentration of CH3COOH/pH value, the peak intensity is enhanced first, and then fluorescence quenching occurs. The polarization degree confirms the molecular orientation of different sample solutions. This research provides theoretical and experimental basis for the physical/chemical properties and quality of vinegar detection by florescence spectroscopy. Dan Li, Xuan Wang, and Caiqin Han Copyright © 2016 Dan Li et al. All rights reserved. Optical Estimation on Pollution Level of Respirable Dust Based on Infrared Transmitting Behavior in Coalmine Fully Mechanized Working Face Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:01:41 +0000 Respirable coal particle generated during underground mining is the main cause for gas-dust explosions and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) which needs accurate monitoring especially on its concentration. Focusing on the coal dust pollution in the fully mechanized working face of Huangbaici coalmine, coal particle was sampled for further industrial analysis and FT-IR test to obtain its chemical composition and optical constant. Combined with the simulated spatial distribution of airborne dust, the spectral transmission characteristics of coal dust within wavelengths of 2.5 to 25 μm under different operating conditions were obtained. The simulation results show that the transmittance and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of coal dust are closely linked and obviously influenced by the variation of dust generation source (intensity of dust release, position of coal cutting, and the wetting of the coal seam) and airflow field (wind speed and direction of ventilation). Furthermore, an optical channel of 1260–1280 cm−1 (7.937–7.813 μm) which is almost only sensitive to the variation of dust concentration but dull to the diameter change of coal dust was selected to establish the correlation of dust concentration and infrared transmittance. The fitting curve was then applied to retrieve the equivalent dust concentration based on optical information, and the comparison results demonstrate that the estimated pollution level is consistent with field measurement data in engineering practice. Wen-Zheng Wang, Yan-Ming Wang, and Guo-Qing Shi Copyright © 2016 Wen-Zheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Discrimination of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma from Noncancerous Ex Vivo Tissue Using Reflectance Spectroscopy Thu, 14 Apr 2016 08:12:14 +0000 Reflectance spectroscopy is a low-cost, nondestructive, and noninvasive method for detection of neoplastic lesions of mucosal tissue. This study aims to evaluate the capability of reflectance spectroscopy system under white light (400–700 nm) with a multivariate statistical analysis for distinguishing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from nasopharyngeal benign ex vivo tissues. High quality reflectance spectra were acquired from nasopharyngeal ex vivo tissues belonging to 18 noncancerous and 19 cancerous subjects, and the combination of principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) along with leave-one-spectrum-out cross-validation (LOOCV) diagnostic algorithm was subsequently employed to classify different types of tissue group, achieving a diagnostic sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 72.2%. Furthermore, in order to distinguish NPC from nasopharyngeal benign ex vivo tissues based on reflectance spectra simply, spectral intensity ratios of oxyhemoglobin (540/576) were used as an indicator of the carcinogenesis associated transformation in the hemoglobin oxygenation. This tentative work demonstrated the potential of reflectance spectroscopy for NPC detection using ex vivo tissue and has significant experimental and clinical value for further in vivo NPC detection in the future. Zhihong Xu, Wei Huang, Duo Lin, Shanshan Wu, Maowen Chen, Xiaosong Ge, Xueliang Lin, and Liqing Sun Copyright © 2016 Zhihong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Sensitivity of Hyperspectral Sensor to Detect Oils with Sea Ice Mon, 04 Apr 2016 11:30:30 +0000 The reflectance of two commonly used oils, crude oil and diesel, is measured under various conditions: on a water surface, among pack ice, and on/beneath compact ice. The spectral characteristics of each oil are analyzed using the results from these measures. In conjunction with estimated noise thresholds of the sensor environment, the theoretical potential to identify oil is assessed for the hyperspectral Hyperion. The hyperspectral sensor is more sensitive to the crude oil than to diesel under all conditions. The visible and infrared bands, from 468 nm to 933 nm, are more suitable to identify the crude oil. In addition, when the background is pack ice, the infrared region from 1134 nm to 1326 nm is another potential useful zone. Through the visible-to-infrared bands, the sensitivity to the existence of diesel is inferior to that of crude oil. Relatively, the bands greater than 1134 nm have the potential to separate diesel from the water or sea ice. These characteristics and sensitivity of oil film in terms of ice and oil type can be effectively used to select suitable bands to distinguish oils from sea water and sea ice. Bingxin Liu, Ying Li, Qiang Zhang, and Liang Han Copyright © 2016 Bingxin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Backward Spectral Characterization of Liquid Crystal Display Based on Forward Spectral Characterization Tue, 29 Mar 2016 11:13:59 +0000 A backward spectral characterization for Liquid Crystal Display by the use of rule for the maximum peak of spectral radiation curves changing with the digital input values is proposed; this new model is developed based on forward spectral characterization. It deals with estimation of RGB used as input to the digital display from known spectral radiation curves. We first investigate the rule for the peak of spectral radiation curves changing with the digital input values of primaries; then the initial digital input RGB are calculated based on that rule using the known spectral radiation curves . Third, RGB are inputted into forward spectral characterization model and the corresponding spectral radiation curves are predicted. Last, RGB are modified according to the difference between predicted and known , until this difference satisfied the prediction accuracy of the inverse characterization model. The inverse model has the advantage of using the same model for both forward and inverse color space transformation. This improves the accuracy of the color space transformation and reduces the source of errors. Results for 3 devices are shown and discussed; the accuracy of this model is considered sufficient for many applications. Jian-qing Zhang, Fang Cai, Xiao-ying Shen, Zhen Liu, and Ming Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jian-qing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. AuCu@Pt Nanoalloys for Catalytic Application in Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:24:21 +0000 To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst ability for nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction reaction we look beyond Au-metal nanoparticles and describe a new class of Au nanoalloys with controlled composition for core of AuCu-metals and Pt-metal shell. The reduction of 4-NP was investigated in aqueous media spectroscopically on 7.8 nm Au nanospheres (AuNSs), 8.3 nm AuCuNSs, and 9.1 nm AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs in diameter. The rate constants of the catalyzed reaction at room temperature, activation energies, and entropies of activation of reactions catalyzed by the AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs are found to have different values to those of the pure metal NSs. The results strongly support the proposal that catalysis by nanoparticles is taking place efficiently on the surface of NSs. These core-shell nanocatalysts exhibited stability throughout the reduction reaction and proved that heterogonous type mechanisms are most likely to be dominant in nanoalloy based catalysis if the surface of the NSs is not defected upon shell incorporation. Sadia Mehmood, Naveed Kausar Janjua, Farhat Saira, and Hicham Fenniri Copyright © 2016 Sadia Mehmood et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Spectroscopy Approach for Detection of Internal Defect of Component without Zero-Position Sensors Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:42:04 +0000 Conventional approach to detect the internal defect of a component needs sensors to mark the “zero” positions, which is time-consuming and lowers down the detecting efficiency. In this study, we proposed a novelty approach that uses spatial spectroscopy to detect internal defect of objects without zero-position sensors. Specifically, the spatial variation wave of distance between the detecting source and object surface is analyzed, from which a periodical cycle is determined with the correlative approaches. Additionally, a wavelet method is adopted to reduce the noise of the periodic distance signal. This approach is validated by the ultrasound detection of a component with round cross section and elliptical shape in axis. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach greatly saves the time spent on the judgment of a complete cycle and improves the detecting efficiency of internal defect in the component. The approach can be expanded to other physical methods for noninvasive detection of internal defect, such as optical spectroscopy or X-ray scanning, and it can be used for hybrid medium, such as biological tissues. Qizhou Wu, Yong Jin, Zhaoba Wang, and Zhaoqian Xiao Copyright © 2016 Qizhou Wu et al. All rights reserved.