Figure 9: Modulation of SOCS gene expression in brown trout by Yersinia ruckeri infection. Naïve brown trout were exposed for 4 h at 16°C by bath challenge in a suspension of Yersinia ruckeri (isolate 06041) at a concentration of  cfu/mL, as described previously [49]. At the same time a control group of fish was exposed to the same dilution of sterile medium used to suspend the bacteria. Fish from each group were sampled at 1, 4, and 8 days postinfection. Kidney swab screenings demonstrated the exclusive presence of Y. ruckeri in the pathogen-challenged fish but not in control fish, The expression of CISH (a), SOCS1 (b), SOCS3 (c), SOCS5 (d), and SOCS7 (e) was examined in kidney samples by real-time RT-PCR as described in Figure 8. The gene expression was first normalised to that of the housekeeping gene EF-1α and expressed as a fold change relative to the unexposed control. The results are presented as mean + SEM. The value of an LSD post hoc test after a significant one-way analysis of variance between the VHSV exposed and control fish is shown above the bars as ** and *** . For comparison of the relative expression levels of genes examined, the cp values in the real-time PCR in 15 unexposed fish are presented as means ± SD (f). Please note that the higher the cp value, the lower the expression level.