Figure 1: Mitochondrial sources of ROS and mitochondrial ROS targets. ROS generators (red) and ROS targets (yellow) are shown in their precise localizations inside mitochondria. Dotted yellow trace encloses the permeability transition pore components. See text, in particular sections 2 and 3, for further details. Abbreviations: OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; IMS: intermembrane space; IMM: inner mitochondrial membrane; MAO A/B: monoamine oxidases A and B; Cyt. b5 reduct.: cytochrome b5 reductase; DHOH: dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; mGPDH: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; I, II, III, and IV: Complex I to IV of the respiratory chain; Q: coenzyme Q; Cyt. c: cytochrome c; KGDHC: α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; PGDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; e: electrons; VDAC, voltage-dependent anion channel, Cycl. D: cyclophilin D; ANT: adenine nucleotide translocase; Pol. Γ: polymerase γ; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA.