Table of Contents
Journal of Signal Transduction
Volume 2013, Article ID 594213, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/594213
Review Article

The Functional State of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling System in Diabetes Mellitus

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Thorez Avenue 44, Saint Petersburg 194223, Russia

Received 25 July 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editor: Wan-Wan Lin

Copyright © 2013 Alexander O. Shpakov and Kira V. Derkach. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) induces a large number of diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular, and some other systems of the organism. One of the main causes of the diseases is the changes in the functional activity of hormonal signaling systems which lead to the alterations and abnormalities of the cellular processes and contribute to triggering and developing many DM complications. The key role in the control of physiological and biochemical processes belongs to the adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling system, sensitive to biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. The review is devoted to the changes in the GPCR-G protein-AC system in the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, and the adipose tissue in experimental and human DM of the types 1 and 2 and also to the role of the changes in AC signaling in the pathogenesis and etiology of DM and its complications. It is shown that the changes of the functional state of hormone-sensitive AC system are dependent to a large extent on the type and duration of DM and in experimental DM on the model of the disease. The degree of alterations and abnormalities of AC signaling pathways correlates very well with the severity of DM and its complications.