Table of Contents
Journal of Signal Transduction
Volume 2013, Article ID 594213, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/594213
Review Article

The Functional State of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling System in Diabetes Mellitus

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Thorez Avenue 44, Saint Petersburg 194223, Russia

Received 25 July 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editor: Wan-Wan Lin

Copyright © 2013 Alexander O. Shpakov and Kira V. Derkach. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. R. Shrivastava, P. S. Shrivastava, and J. Ramasamy, “Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, vol. 12, no. 1, article 14, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. C. Stiles and E. R. Seaquist, “Cerebral structural and functional changes in type 1 diabetes,” Minerva Medica, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. E. Tabit, W. B. Chung, N. M. Hamburg, and J. A. Vita, “Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications,” Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, vol. 11, pp. 61–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. S. E. Nelson, “Management of patients with type 2 diabetes,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 27, pp. 1931–1947, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Chiha, M. Njeim, and E. G. Chedrawy, “Diabetes and coronary heart disease: a risk factor for the global epidemic,” International Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2012, Article ID 697240, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Louraki, C. Karayianni, C. Kanaka-Gantenbein, M. Katsalouli, and K. Karavanaki, “Peripheral neuropathy in children with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 281–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. N. Magge, “Cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 591–600, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. B. N. Mercer, S. Morais, R. M. Cubbon, and M. T. Kearney, “Diabetes mellitus and the heart,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 640–647, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. H. Umegaki, T. Hayashi, H. Nomura et al., “Cognitive dysfunction: an emerging concept of a new diabetic complication in the elderly,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. V. M. Altan, E. Arioglu, S. Guner, and A. T. Ozcelikay, “The influence of diabetes on cardiac β-adrenoceptor subtypes,” Heart Failure Reviews, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 58–65, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. H. Meek and G. J. Morton, “Leptin, diabetes, and the brain,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 16, supplement 3, pp. 534–542, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. O. Shpakov, “Alterations in hormonal signaling systems in diabetes mellitus: origin, causality and specificity,” Endocrinology and Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 1, article e106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. O. Shpakov, “The functional state of biogenic amines- and acetylcholine-regulated signaling systems of the brain in diabetes mellitus,” Tsitologiia, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 459–468, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. O. Shpakov and K. V. Derkach, “The brain peptidergic signaling systems in diabetes mellitus,” Tsitologiia, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 733–741, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. K. Soumaya, “Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in diabetes,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 771, pp. 240–251, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. G.-J. Biessels, A. Kamal, G. M. Ramakers et al., “Place learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1259–1266, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. J. Scheen, “Central nervous system: a conductor orchestrating metabolic regulations harmed by both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. S31–S38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Jackson and C. S. Paulose, “Enhancement of [m-methoxy 3H]MDL100907 binding to 5HT(2A) receptors in cerebral cortex and brain stem of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 199, no. 1-2, pp. 81–85, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Gireesh, S. Balarama Kaimal, T. Peeyush Kumar, and C. S. Paulose, “Decreased muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 947–953, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Antony, T. Peeyush Kumar, J. Mathew, T. R. Anju, and C. S. Paulose, “Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 17, no. 1, article 7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Anu, T. Peeyush Kumar, M. S. Nandhu, and C. S. Paulose, “Enhanced NMDAr1, NMDA2b and mGlu5 receptors gene expression in the cerebellum of insulin induced hypoglycaemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 630, no. 1–3, pp. 61–68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. P. Kumar, S. Antony, G. Gireesh, N. George, and C. S. Paulose, “Curcumin modulates dopaminergic receptor, CREB and phospholipase C gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 17, p. 43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Shpakov, O. Chistyakova, K. Derkach, and V. Bondareva, “Hormonal signaling systems of the brain in diabetes mellitus,” in Neurodegenerative Diseases, R. C. Chang, Ed., pp. 349–386, Intech Open Access Publisher, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Seed Ahmed, A. Kovoor, S. Nordman et al., “Increased expression of adenylyl cyclase 3 in pancreatic islets and central nervous system of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: a possible regulatory role in glucose homeostasis,” Islets, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 343–348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Sherin, J. Anu, K. T. Peeyush et al., “Cholinergic and GABAergic receptor functional deficit in the hippocampus of insulin-induced hypoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 202, pp. 69–76, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Jayanarayanan, S. Smijin, K. T. Peeyush, T. R. Anju, and C. S. Paulose, “NMDA and AMPA receptor mediated excitotoxicity in cerebral cortex of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat: ameliorating effects of curcumin,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 201, no. 1–3, pp. 39–48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. H. Pijl and E. A. Meinders, “Modulation of monoaminergic neural circuits: potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Treatments in Endocrinology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 71–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. N. E. Shankar, A. Joseph, and C. S. Paulose, “Decreased [3H] YM-09151-2 binding to dopamine D2 receptors in the hypothalamus, brainstem and pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 557, no. 2-3, pp. 99–105, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Anitha, P. M. Abraham, and C. S. Paulose, “Striatal dopamine receptors modulate the expression of insulin receptor, IGF-1 and GLUT-3 in diabetic rats: effect of pyridoxine treatment,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 696, no. 1–3, pp. 54–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Finkbeiner, “CREB couples neurotrophin signals to survival messages,” Neuron, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 11–14, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. O. Shpakov, L. A. Kuznetsova, S. A. Plesneva, and M. N. Pertseva, “Molecular mechanisms of modified sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase signaling system to biogenic amines during streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 304–308, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Shpakov, K. Derkach, I. Moyseyuk, and O. Chistyakova, “Alterations of hormone-sensitive adenylyl cyclase system in the tissues of rats with long-term streptozotocin diabetes and the influence of intranasal insulin,” Dataset Papers in Pharmacology, vol. 2013, Article ID 698435, 14 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. A. O. Shpakov, O. V. Chistyakova, K. V. Derkach, I. V. Moyseyuk, and V. M. Bondareva, “Intranasal insulin affects adenyl cyclase system in rat tissues in neonatal diabetes,” Central European Journal of Biology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 33–47, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. O. Shpakov, L. A. Kuznetsova, S. A. Plesneva et al., “Decrease in functional activity of G-proteins hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase signaling system, during experimental type II diabetes mellitus,” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 685–689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. O. Shpakov, K. V. Derkach, O. V. Chistyakova, I. B. Sukhov, V. N. Shipilov, and V. M. Bondareva, “The brain adenylyl cyclase signaling system and cognitive functions in rat with neonatal diabetes under the influence of intranasal serotonin,” Journal of Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 1, no. 2, Article ID 1000104, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. A. O. Shpakov, L. A. Kuznetsova, S. A. Plesneva, I. A. Gur'ianov, G. P. Vlasov, and M. N. Pertseva, “Identifications of disturbances in hormone-sensitive adenylyl cyclase system in the tissues of rats with types 1 and 2 diabetes using functional probes and synthetic peptides,” Tekhnologii Zhivykh System, vol. 4, pp. 96–108, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Y. Kuo, “Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the attenuation of hyperphagia in streptozotocin diabetic rats treated with dopamine D1/D2 agonists,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 640–647, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Papazoglou, F. Berthou, N. Vicaire et al., “Hypothalamic serotonin-insulin signaling cross-talk and alterations in a type 2 diabetic model,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 350, no. 1, pp. 136–144, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Haider, S. Ahmed, S. Tabassum, Z. Memon, M. Ikram, and D. J. Haleem, “Streptozotocin-induced insulin deficiency leads to development of behavioral deficits in rats,” Acta Neurologica Belgica, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. X. Li and C. P. France, “Food restriction and streptozotocin treatment decrease 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor-mediated behavioral effects in rats,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 292–297, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. A. O. Shpakov, K. V. Derkach, I. V. Moyseyuk, O. V. Chistyakova, and V. M. Bondareva, “Hormonal sensitivity of adenylyl cyclase in the myocardium, brain and testes of 18-month-old non-diabetic and diabetic rats,” International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Tully and V. Y. Bolshakov, “Emotional enhancement of memory: how norepinephrine enables synaptic plasticity,” Molecular Brain, vol. 3, p. 15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. D. R. Garris, “Age-and diabetes-associated alterations in regional brain norepinephrine concentrations and adrenergic receptor populations in C57BL/KsJ mice,” Developmental Brain Research, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. S. Padayatti and C. S. Paulose, “α2 adrenergic and high affinity serotonergic receptor changes in the brain stem of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 403–414, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. S. Bitar and E. B. DeSouza, “Diabetes-related changes in brain beta adrenoreceptors in rats as assessed by quantitative autoradiography: relationship to hypothalamic norepinephrine metabolism and pituitary-gonadal hormone secretion,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 254, no. 3, pp. 781–785, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. S. Magnoni, H. Kobayashi, and E. Trezzi, “β-adrenergic receptors in brain microvessels of diabetic rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1095–1100, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. D. Mooradian and P. J. Scarpace, “β-adrenergic receptor activity of cerebral microvessels in experimental diabetes mellitus,” Brain Research, vol. 583, no. 1-2, pp. 155–160, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. I. S. Farooqi, J. M. Keogh, G. S. H. Yeo, E. J. Lank, T. Cheetham, and S. O'Rahilly, “Clinical spectrum of obesity and mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 12, pp. 1085–1095, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Balthasar, L. T. Dalgaard, C. E. Lee et al., “Divergence of melanocortin pathways in the control of food intake and energy expenditure,” Cell, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 493–505, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. Fan, D. M. Dinulescu, A. A. Butler, J. Zhou, D. L. Marks, and R. D. Cone, “The central melanocortin system can directly regulate serum insulin levels,” Endocrinology, vol. 141, no. 9, pp. 3072–3079, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Obici, Z. Feng, J. Tan, L. Liu, G. Karkanias, and L. Rossetti, “Central melanocortin receptors regulate insulin action,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 1079–1085, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. Nogueiras, P. Wiedmer, D. Perez-Tilve et al., “The central melanocortin system directly controls peripheral lipid metabolism,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 11, pp. 3475–3488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Haskell-Luevano, J. W. Schaub, A. Andreasen et al., “Voluntary exercise prevents the obese and diabetic metabolic syndrome of the melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mouse,” FASEB Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 642–655, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. J. Havel, T. M. Hahn, D. K. Sindelar et al., “Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the hypothalamic melanocortin system and muscle uncoupling protein 3 expression in rats,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 244–252, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Gout, D. Sarafian, J. Tirard et al., “Leptin infusion and obesity in mouse cause alterations in the hypothalamic melanocortin system,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1763–1769, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. Giuliani, C. Mioni, D. Altavilla et al., “Both early and delayed treatment with melanocortin 4 receptor-stimulating melanocortins produces neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia,” Endocrinology, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 1126–1135, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. B. Tatro, “Melanocortins defend their territory: multifaceted neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia,” Endocrinology, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 1122–1125, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. P. Nargund, A. M. Strack, and T. M. Fong, “Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonists for the treatment of obesity,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 4035–4043, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. G. Hofbauer, A.-C. Lecourt, and J.-C. Peter, “Antibodies as pharmacologic tools for studies on the regulation of energy balance,” Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 791–797, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J.-C. Peter, G. Zipfel, A.-C. Lecourt, A. Bekel, and K. G. Hofbauer, “Antibodies raised against different extracellular loops of the melanocortin-3 receptor affect energy balance and autonomic function in rats,” Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 444–453, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. O. Shpakov, “Signal protein-derived peptides as functional probes and regulators of intracellular signaling,” Journal of Amino Acids, vol. 2011, Article ID 656051, 25 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. O. Shpakov, “Peptides derived from the extracellular loop of receptors: structure, mechanisms of action and application in physiology and medicine,” Russian The Journal of Physiology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 441–458, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. P. Gilman, T. A. Perry, K. Furukawa, N. H. Grieg, J. M. Egan, and M. P. Mattson, “Glucagon-like peptide 1 modulates calcium responses to glutamate and membrane depolarization in hippocampal neurons,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1137–1144, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Hamilton and C. Holscher, “Receptors for the insulin-like peptide GLP-1 are expressed on neurons in the CNS,” Neuroreport, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 1161–1166, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. A. Hamilton, S. Patterson, D. Porter, V. A. Gault, and C. Holscher, “Novel GLP-1 mimetics developed to treat type 2 diabetes promote progenitor cell proliferation in the brain,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 481–489, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. E. Doyle and J. M. Egan, “Mechanisms of action of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the pancreas,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 546–593, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. J. A. Lovshin and D. J. Drucker, “Incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 262–269, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. J. Holst, R. Burcelin, and E. Nathanson, “Neuroprotective properties of GLP-1: theoretical and practical applications,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 547–558, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. L. McClean, V. A. Gault, P. Harriott, and C. Hölscher, “Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues enhance synaptic plasticity in the brain: a link between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 630, no. 1–3, pp. 158–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. D. Green and P. R. Flatt, “Incretin hormone mimetics and analogues in diabetes therapeutics,” Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 497–516, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Botia, M. Basille, A. Allais et al., “Neurotrophic effects of PACAP in the cerebellar cortex,” Peptides, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1746–1752, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Tamas, D. Reglodi, O. Farkas et al., “Effect of PACAP in central and peripheral nerve injuries,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 8430–8448, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. A. Dejda, P. Sokołowska, and J. Z. Nowak, “Neuroprotective potential of three neuropeptides PACAP, VIP and PHI,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 307–320, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Bourgault, D. Chatenet, O. Wurtz et al., “Strategies to convert PACAP from a hypophysiotropic neurohormone into a neuroprotective drug,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1002–1024, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Mansouri, H. Ortsäter, O. Pintor Gallego, V. Darsalia, Å. Sjöholm, and C. Patrone, “Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide counteracts the impaired adult neural stem cell viability induced by palmitate,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 759–768, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Stengel, J. Rivier, and Y. Taché, “Central actions of somatostatin-28 and oligosomatostatin agonists to prevent components of the endocrine, autonomic and visceral responses to stress through interaction with different somatostatin receptor subtypes,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 98–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. A. D. Blake, A. C. Badway, and M. Z. Strowski, “Delineating somatostatin's neuronal actions,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. K. Tallent, “Somatostatin in the dentate gyrus,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 163, pp. 265–284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. J. Hofland, R. A. Feelders, W. W. de Herder, and S. W. J. Lamberts, “Pituitary tumours: the sst/D2 receptors as molecular targets,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 326, no. 1-2, pp. 89–98, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. U. Kumar and M. Grant, “Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors,” Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation, vol. 50, pp. 137–184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. F. Bruno, Y. Xu, J. Song, and M. Berelowitz, “Pituitary and hypothalamic somatostatin receptor subtype messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the food-deprived and diabetic rat,” Endocrinology, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1787–1792, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. V. Chavali, S. C. Tyagi, and P. K. Mishra, “Predictors and prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, vol. 6, pp. 151–160, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. P. Jourdon and D. Feuvray, “Calcium and potassium currents in ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rats,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 470, pp. 411–429, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Picchi, S. Capobianco, T. Qiu et al., “Coronary microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: a review,” World Journal of Cardiology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 377–390, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. I. Berlin, A. Grimaldi, F. Bosquet, and A. J. Puech, “Decreased β-adrenergic sensitivity in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 262–265, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. U. D. Dincer, K. R. Bidasee, S. Guner, A. Tay, A. T. Ozçelikay, and V. M. Altan, “The effect of diabetes on expression of β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoreceptors in rat hearts,” Diabetes, vol. 50, pp. 455–461, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. K. Watanabe, R. A. Thandavarayan, M. Harima et al., “Role of differential signaling pathways and oxidative stress in diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Current Cardiology Reviews, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 280–290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C. Gauthier, G. Tavernier, F. Charpentier, D. Langin, and H. Le Marec, “Functional β3-adrenoceptor in the human heart,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 556–562, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. M. G. Ursino, V. Vasina, E. Raschi, F. Crema, and F. De Ponti, “The β3-adrenoceptor as a therapeutic target: current perspectives,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 221–234, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Kashiwaga, Y. Nishio, Y. Saeki, Y. Kida, M. Kodama, and Y. Shigeta, “Plasma membrane-specific deficiency in cardiac β-adrenergic receptor in streptozotocin-diabetic rats,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 257, no. 2, part 1, pp. 127–132, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. Saito, A. Kuroda, and H. Tanaka, “Characterisation of β1 and β2 adrenoceptor subtypes in the atrioventricular node of diabetic rat hearts by quantitative autoradiography,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 950–954, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Gando, Y. Hattori, Y. Akaishi, J. Nishihira, and M. Kanno, “Impaired contractile response to beta adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic rat hearts: alterations in beta adrenoceptors-G protein-adenylate cyclase system and phospholamban phosphorylation,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 282, no. 1, pp. 475–484, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. N. Matsuda, Y. Hattori, S. Gando, Y. Akaishi, O. Kemmotsu, and M. Kanno, “Diabetes-induced down-regulation of β1-adrenoceptor mRNA expression in rat heart,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 881–885, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. R. Sundaresan, V. K. Sharma, S. I. Gingold, and S. P. Banerjee, “Decreased β-adrenergic receptors in rat heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetes: role of thyroid hormones,” Endocrinology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 1358–1363, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Moniotte, L. Kobzik, O. Feron, J.-N. Trochu, C. Gauthier, and J.-L. Balligand, “Upregulation of β3-adrenoceptors and altered contractile response to inotropic amines in human failing myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 1649–1655, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. B. Rozec and C. Gauthier, “β3-adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular system: putative roles in human pathologies,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 652–673, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Walston, K. Silver, C. Bogardus et al., “Time of onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and genetic variation in the β3-adrenergic-receptor gene,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 6, pp. 343–347, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. L.-L. Xiu, J.-P. Weng, Y. Sui, J. Wang, J.-H. Yan, and Z.-M. Huang, “Common variants in beta 3-adrenergic-receptor and uncoupling protein-2 genes are associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 375–379, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. N. Sakane, T. Yoshida, K. Yoshioka et al., “β3-adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism: a newly identified risk factor for proliferative retinopathy in NIDDM patients,” Diabetes, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1633–1636, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. N. Sakane, T. Yoshida, K. Yoshioka et al., “Trp64 Arg mutation of β3-adrenoceptor gene is associated with diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1533–1534, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Wichelhaus, M. Russ, S. Petersen, and J. Eckel, “G protein expression and adenylate cyclase regulation in ventricular cardiomyocytes from STZ-diabetic rats,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 267, no. 2, pp. H548–H555, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. Communal, K. Singh, D. B. Sawyer, and W. S. Colucci, “Opposing effects of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors on cardiac myocyte apoptosis: role of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 22, pp. 2210–2212, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Ü. D. Dinçer, A. Onay, N. Ari, A. T. Özçelikay, and V. M. Altan, “The effects of diabetes on β-adrenoceptor mediated responsiveness of human and rat atria,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Kamata, T. Satoh, H. Tanaka, and K. Shigenobu, “Changes in electrophysiological and mechanical responses of the rat papillary muscle to α- and β-agonist in streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Canadian The Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 781–788, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. Michel, G. H. Cros, J. H. McNeil, and J. J. Serrano, “Cardiac adenylate cyclase activity in streptozotocin-treated rats after 4 months of diabetes: impairment of epinephrine and glucagon stimulation,” Life Sciences, vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 2067–2075, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. G. Plourde, M. Martin, S. Rousseau-Migneron, and A. Nadeau, “Effect of physical training on ventricular β-adrenergic receptor adenylate cyclase system of diabetic rats,” Metabolism, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 362–367, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. L. X. Fu, C. H. Bergh, Q. M. Liang et al., “Diabetes-induced changes in the Gi-modulated muscarinic receptor-adenylyl cyclase system in rat myocardium,” Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 75, no. 3-4, pp. 186–193, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  108. T. Matsumoto, K. Wakabayashi, T. Kobayashi, and K. Kamata, “Functional changes in adenylyl cyclases and associated decreases in relaxation responses in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 289, no. 5, pp. H2234–H2243, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. F. Vatner, M. Park, L. Yan et al., “Adenylyl cyclase type 5 in cardiac disease, metabolism, and aging,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 305, no. 1, pp. H1–H8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. P. K. Ganguly, R. E. Beamish, and K. S. Dhalla, “Norepinephrine storage, distribution, and release in diabetic cardiomyopathy,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 252, no. 6, p. 15/6, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. R. Bidasee, H. Zheng, C.-H. Shao, S. K. Parbhu, G. J. Rozanski, and K. P. Patel, “Exercise training initiated after the onset of diabetes preserves myocardial function: effects on expression of β-adrenoceptors,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 907–914, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. S. L. D. Lahaye, A. Gratas-Delamarche, L. Malardé et al., “Intense exercise training induces adaptation in expression and responsiveness of cardiac β-adrenoceptors in diabetic rats,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 9, article 72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. W. Schaffer, S. Allo, S. Punna, and T. White, “Defective response to cAMP-dependent protein kinase in non-insulin-dependent diabetic heart,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 261, no. 3, pp. E369–E376, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. O. H. M. Beenen, H. D. Batink, M. Pfaffendorf, and P. A. van Zwieten, “β-adrenoceptors in the hearts of diabetic-hypertensive rats: radioligand binding and functional experiments,” Blood Pressure, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. W. C. Stanley, J. J. Dore, J. L. Hall, C. D. Hamilton, R. D. Pizzurro, and D. A. Roth, “Diabetes reduces right atrial β-adrenergic signaling but not agonist stimulation of heart rate in swine,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 346–351, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. A. Bilginoglu, F. Amber Cicek, M. Ugur, H. Gurdal, and B. Turan, “The role of gender differences in beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness of diabetic rat heart,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 305, no. 1-2, pp. 63–69, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. V. Regitz-Zagrosek, S. Oertelt-Prigione, U. Seeland, and R. Hetzer, “Sex and gender differences in myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure,” Circulation Journal, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 1265–1273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. C. E. Heyliger, G. N. Pierce, and P. K. Singal, “Cardiac alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor alterations in diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 610–618, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. J. Latifpour and J. H. McNeill, “Cardiac autonomic receptors: effect of long-term experimental diabetes,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 242–249, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. Wald, E. S. Borda, and L. Sterin-Borda, “α-Adrenergic supersensitivity and decreased number of α-adrenoceptors in heart from acute diabetic rats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1154–1160, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. S. E. Downing, J. C. Lee, and R. R. Fripp, “Enhanced sensitivity of diabetic hearts to alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 245, no. 5, part 1, pp. H808–813, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. B. Heijnis and P. A. van Zwieten, “Enhanced inotropic responsiveness to α1-adrenoceptor stimulation in isolated working hearts from diabetic rats,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 559–562, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. S. Setty, W. Sun, R. Martinez, H. F. Downey, and J. D. Tune, “α-adrenoceptor-mediated coronary vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise in experimental diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 431–438, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. K. Kamata, T. Satoh, T. Matsumoto et al., “Enhancement of methoxamine-induced contractile responses of rat ventricular muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetes is associated with α1A adrenoceptor upregulation,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 188, no. 3-4, pp. 173–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. Gao, Y.-B. Oh, A. Shah, W. H. Park, and S. H. Kim, “Suppression of ANP secretion by somatostatin through somatostatin receptor type 2,” Peptides, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1179–1186, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. S. Hashim, Y. Li, A. Nagakura, S. Takeo, and M. B. Anand-Srivastava, “Modulation of G-protein expression and adenylyl cyclase signaling by high glucose in vascular smooth muscle,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 709–718, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. Hashim, Y. Y. Liu, R. Wang, and M. B. Anand-Srivastava, “Streptozotocin-induced diabetes impairs G-protein linked signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 240, no. 1-2, pp. 57–65, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. Y. Li, M. Descorbeth, and M. B. Anand-Srivastava, “Role of oxidative stress in high glucose-induced decreased expression of Giα proteins and adenylyl cyclase signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 6, pp. H2845–H2854, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Descorbeth and M. B. Anand-Srivastava, “Role of oxidative stress in high-glucose- and diabetes-induced increased expression of Gq/11α proteins and associated signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1395–1405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. A. Ozuari, Y. Ozturk, N. Yildizoglu-Ari, A. T. Ozcelikay, and V. M. Altan, “The effects of glyburide and insulin on the cardiac performance in rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” General Pharmacology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 165–169, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. T. Bányász, I. Kalapos, S. Z. Kelemen, and T. Kovács, “Changes in cardiac contractility in IDDM and NIDDM diabetic rats,” General Physiology and Biophysics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 357–369, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. B. Huisamen, E. Marais, S. Genade, and A. Lochner, “Serial changes in the myocardial β-adrenergic signalling system in two models of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 219, no. 1-2, pp. 73–82, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. P. K. Mishra, O. Awe, N. Metreveli, N. Qipshidze, I. G. Joshua, and S. C. Tyagi, “Exercise mitigates homocysteine - β2-adrenergic receptor interactions to ameliorate contractile dysfunction in diabetes,” International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. A. J. Garber, “The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on cyclic nucleotide regulation of skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism in the rat,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 478–487, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. G. Plourde, S. Rousseau-Migneron, and A. Nadeau, “Physical training increases β-adrenoceptor density and adenylate cyclase activity in high-oxidative skeletal muscle of diabetic rats,” Metabolism, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1331–1335, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. G. Plourde, S. Rousseau-Migneron, and A. Nadeau, “Effect of endurance training on β-adrenergic system in three different skeletal muscles,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1641–1646, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. A. O. Shpakov, L. A. Kuznetsova, S. A. Plesneva et al., “Functional defects in adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms of insulin and relaxin in skeletal muscles of rat with streptozotocin type 1 diabetes,” Central European Journal of Biology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 530–544, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. X.-L. Zheng, J. H. Guo, H.-Y. Wang, and C. C. Malbon, “Expression of constitutively activated G(iα2) in vivo ameliorates streptozotocininduced diabetes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 37, pp. 23649–23651, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. X. Song, X. Zheng, C. C. Malbon, and H.-Y. Wang, “Gαi2 enhances in vivo activation of and insulin signaling to GLUT4,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 37, pp. 34651–34658, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. T. M. Chan, J. P. Dehaye, and A. Tatoyan, “Activation of lipolysis by epinephrine and electrical stimulation in the perfused hindquarters of lean and obese-diabetic (db/db) mice,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 751, no. 3, pp. 384–392, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. R. R. Dighe, F. J. Rojas, L. Birnbaumer, and A. J. Garber, “Glucagon-stimulable adenylyl cyclase in rat liver. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1013–1023, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Bushfield, S. L. Griffiths, G. J. Murphy et al., “Diabetes-induced alterations in the expression, functioning and phosphorylation state of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gi2 in hepatocytes,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 271, no. 2, pp. 365–372, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. M. D. Housley, “Gi2 is at the centre of an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle in hepatocytes: the fine-tuning of stimulatory and inhibitory inputs into adenylate cyclase in normal and diabetic states,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. N. J. Morris, M. Bushfield, and M. D. Houslay, “Streptozotocin-induced diabetes elicits the phosphorylation of hepatocyte Gi2α at the protein kinase C site but not at the protein kinase A-controlled site,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 315, no. 2, pp. 417–420, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. S. Shima, H. Fukase, and N. Akamatsu, “Adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in hepatocytes of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat,” Endocrinologia Japonica, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. N. Bégin-Heick, “Liver β-adrenergic receptors, G proteins, and adenylyl cyclase activity in obesity-diabetes syndromes,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 266, no. 6, part 1, pp. C1664–C1672, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. N. Begin-Heick, “α-Subunits of Gs and Gi in adipocyte plasma membranes of genetically diabetic (db/db) mice,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 263, no. 1, part 1, pp. C121–C129, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. N. McFarlane-Anderson, J. Bailly, and N. Begin-Heick, “Levels of G-proteins in liver and brain of lean and obese (ob/ob) mice,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 282, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. T. M. Palmer and M. D. Houslay, “Determination of G-protein levels, ADP-ribosylation by cholera and pertussis toxins and the regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in liver plasma membrane from lean and genetically diabetic (db/db) mice,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1097, no. 3, pp. 193–204, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. P. Young, D. M. Kirkham, G. J. Murphy, and M. A. Cawthorne, “Evaluation of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gi function in hepatocyte and liver membranes from obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and their lean (Fa/?) littermates,” Diabetologia, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 565–569, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. D. M. Kirkham, G. J. Murphy, and P. Young, “Demonstration of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Gi) function in liver and hepatocyte membranes from streptozotocin-treated rats,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 284, no. 2, pp. 301–304, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. L. Madsen and K. Kristiansen, “The importance of dietary modulation of cAMP and insulin signaling in adipose tissue and the development of obesity,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1190, pp. 1–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. S. Collins, K. W. Daniel, A. E. Petro, and R. S. Surwit, “Strain-specific response to β3-adrenergic receptor agonist treatment of diet-induced obesity in mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 405–413, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. P. Muzzin, J.-P. Revelli, F. Kuhne et al., “An adipose tissue-specific β-adrenergic receptor. Molecular cloning and down-regulation in obesity,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 266, no. 35, pp. 24053–24058, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. S. Collins, K. W. Daniel, E. M. Rohlfs, V. Ramkumar, I. L. Taylor, and T. W. Gettys, “Impaired expression and functional activity of the β3- and β1-adrenergic receptors in adipose tissue of congenitally obese (C57BL/6J ob/ob) mice,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 518–527, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. N. Bégin-Heick, “β-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in the ob/ob mouse,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. S32–S35, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. T. W. Gettys, P. M. Watson, I. L. Taylor, and S. Collins, “RU-486 (Mifepristone) ameliorates diabetes but does not correct deficient β-adrenergic signalling in adipocytes from mature C57BL/6J-ob/ob mice,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 865–873, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. B. A. Evans, M. Papaioannou, F. Anastasopoulos, and R. J. Summers, “Differential regulation of β3-adrenoceptors in gut and adipose tissue of genetically obese (ob/ob) C57BL/6J-mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 763–771, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. A. K. Dhalla, M. Santikul, J. M. Chisholm, L. Belardinelli, and G. M. Reaven, “Comparison of the antilipolytic effects of an A1 adenosine receptor partial agonist in normal and diabetic rats,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 95–101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. J. Vendrell, R. El Bekay, B. Peral et al., “Study of the potential association of adipose tissue GLP-1 receptor with obesity and insulin resistance,” Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 11, pp. 4072–4079, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. R. L. Rodgers, “Glucagon and cyclic AMP: time to turn the page?” Current Diabetes Reviews, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 362–381, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. A. K. Dhalla, J. W. Chisholm, G. M. Reaven, and L. Belardinelli, “A1 adenosine receptor: role in diabetes and obesity,” Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 193, pp. 271–295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. D. Strassheim, G. Milligan, and M. D. Houslay, “Diabetes abolishes the GTP-dependent, but not the receptor-dependent inhibitory function of the inhibitory guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (Gi) on adipocyte adenylate cyclase activity,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 266, no. 2, pp. 521–526, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. J. C. Weems, B. A. Griesel, and A. L. Olson, “Class II histone deacetylases downregulate GLUT4 transcription in response to increased cAMP signaling in cultured adipocytes and fasting mice,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1404–1414, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  165. S. J. Bonasera and L. H. Tecott, “Mouse models of serotonin receptor function: toward a genetic dissection of serotonin systems,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 133–142, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. L. K. Heisler, M. A. Cowley, L. H. Tecott et al., “Activation of central melanocortin pathways by fenfluramine,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5581, pp. 609–611, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. A. R. Cole, A. Astell, C. Green, and C. Sutherland, “Molecular connexions between dementia and diabetes,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1046–1063, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. L. Zhou, G. M. Sutton, J. J. Rochford et al., “Serotonin 2C receptor agonists improve type 2 diabetes via melanocortin-4 receptor signaling pathways,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 398–405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. S. M. de La Monte, M. Tong, V. Nguyen, M. Setshedi, L. Longato, and J. R. Wands, “Ceramide-mediated insulin resistance and impairment of cognitive-motor functions,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 967–984, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. M. A. L. van Tilburg, C. C. McCaskill, J. D. Lane et al., “Depressed mood is a factor in glycemic control in type 1 diabetes,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 551–555, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. P. J. Lustman and R. E. Clouse, “Depression in diabetic patients: the relationship between mood and glycemic control,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. J. L. Kerr, E. M. Timpe, and K. A. Petkewicz, “Bromocriptine mesylate for glycemic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1777–1785, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. D. S. Bell, “Focusing on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an introduction to bromocriptine QR,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 121–135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  174. R. Scranton and A. Cincotta, “Bromocriptine unique formulation of a dopamine agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 269–279, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. N. Mikhail, “Quick-release bromocriptine for treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 511–516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus