Table of Contents
Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 610258, 8 pages
Research Article

Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive United States Military Personnel

1Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
2Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, 11800 Tech Road, Suite 220, Silver Spring, MD 20904, USA
3Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA

Received 5 September 2012; Revised 27 February 2013; Accepted 11 March 2013

Academic Editor: Bernardo Galvao-Castro

Copyright © 2013 Jeff S. Tzeng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Minimal data exist that describe the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive populations across the pre- and post-diagnosis periods for HIV. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the epidemiology of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus in an HIV-positive population. Methods. All 1,961 HIV seropositive United States active duty military personnel from 2000–2010 were identified. STI diagnoses relative to HIV diagnosis from 1995, which was the earliest electronic medical record available, to 2010 were examined. Results. The incidence diagnosis rates of STI generally increased during the period leading up to eventual HIV diagnosis. The rates of STI during the post-HIV diagnosis period fluctuated, but remained elevated compared to pre-HIV diagnosis period. Approximately 45%–69% with an STI in the HIV seropositive military population were diagnosed with their first STI greater than one year after their HIV diagnosis. Of those who were diagnosed with an STI in the post-HIV diagnosis period, 70.6% had one STI diagnosis, 23.5% had two STI diagnoses, and 5.8% had three or more STI diagnoses. Conclusions. Despite aggressive counseling, high-risk sexual behavior continues to occur in the HIV-positive military population.