Table of Contents
Journal of Structures
Volume 2014, Article ID 859879, 7 pages
Research Article

Characterization and Degradation of Masonry Mortar in Historic Brick Structures

Clemson University, 100 Clemson Research Boulevard, Anderson, SC 29625, USA

Received 7 January 2014; Revised 16 March 2014; Accepted 18 March 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editor: Elio Sacco

Copyright © 2014 Denis A. Brosnan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. G. Blezard, The History of Calcerous Cements, Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Elsevier, 4th edition, 1998.
  2. D. von Landsberg, “The history of lime production and use from early times to the industrial revolution,” Zement-Kalk-Gips, vol. 8, pp. 192–203, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  3. E. C. Eckel, Cements, Limes, and Plasters—Their Materials, Manufacture, and Properties, Donhead Publishing, 2005.
  4. U. Cummings, American Cements, Natural Binders Press, 2006, Edited by D. Chapman.
  5. J. Elsen, “Microscopy of historic mortars—a review,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1416–1424, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Weber, N. Gadermayr, K. Buyar et al., “Roman cement mortars in Europe's architectural heritage of the 19th century,” Journal of ASTM International, vol. 4, pp. 69–83, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. Callebaut, J. Elsen, K. Van Balen, and W. Viaene, “Nineteenth century hydraulic restoration mortars in the Saint Michael's Church (Leuven, Belgium): natural hydraulic lime or cement?” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 397–403, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Horres, “The Building of Fort Sumter,” Presented at the Charleston Museum, May 2011.
  9. J. G. Totten, Essays on Hydraulic Lime and Common Mortar and on Lime Burning, Translated from the French with 1825 to 1838, Lt. Col. of Eng. and Brevet Co., 1838, M. P. Edison, Section 5, Brief Observations on Common Mortars, Hydraulic Mortars, and Concretes, with Some Experiments Made Therewith at Fort Adams, Newport Harbour, Natural Cement, R. I. FROM ASTM STP, 1494, 2007.
  10. A. Rogers and J. Alexander, Industrial Chemistry, 3rd edition, 1920.
  11. B. Arthur, “On the composition of ancient cements and Rosendale cements,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 204–210, 1873. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Vyskocilova, W. Schwarz, D. Mucha, D. Hughes, R. Kozlowski, and J. Weber, “Hydration processes in pastes of roman and American natural cements,” ASTM STP, vol. 4, no. 2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. D. E. Krotzer and J. J. Walsh, “Analyzing mortars and stuccos at the college of Charleston: a comprehensive approach,” APT Bulletin, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  14. ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Examination and Analysis of Hardened Masonry Mortar, vol. 2005 of ASTM C1324-05, ASTM International.
  15. G. Chiari, G. Torraca, and M. Santarelli, “Recommendations for systematic instrumental analysis of ancient mortars: the Italian experience, Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation,” ASTM STP, vol. 1258, pp. 275–284, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  16. D. A. Brosnan, J. P. Sanders, and S. A. Hart, “Application of thermal analysis in preservation and restoration of historic masonry materials—part A: Characterization of materials,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 109–115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Walsh and K. Uracius, “Exploring American natural cement rock from its national distribution to its chemistry and microstructure,” in Proceedings of the 1st American Natural Cement Conference, 2005.
  18. R. S. Boynton, Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  19. B. Lubelli, R. P. J. van Hees, and C. J. W. P. Groot, “The role of sea salts in the occurrence of different damage mechanisms and decay patterns on brick masonry,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus