Journal of Toxicology / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

Table 1

Classification of CVD risk factors.

CategoryExamplesReferences

Nonmodifiable risk factors(i) Advancing age
(ii) Male gender
(iii) Family history/genotype
(i) [6]
(ii) [7]
(iii) [8]

Metabolic risk factors(i) Hypertension
(ii) Diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance
(iii) Metabolic syndrome
(iv) Hyperlipidemias
(v) Obesity/overweight
(i) [9]
(ii) [10]
(iii) [11]
(iv) [12]
(v) [13]

Lifestyle risk factors(i) Smoking
(ii) Physical activity
(iii) Diet
(i) [14]
(ii) [15]
(iii) [16, 17]

Novel risk factors(i) Lipoprotein (a)
(ii) Homocysteine
(iii) Inflammatory markers (e.g., C-reactive protein)
(iv) Prothrombotic factors (e.g., fibrinogen)
(v) Trace elements (e.g., selenium, zinc, copper, chromium)
(vi) Heavy metals (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury)
(i) [18]
(ii) [19]
(iii) [2023]
(iv) [2427]