Journal of Toxicology / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

Table 2

Noncardiovascular harmful effects of heavy metals.

Heavy metalMost affected organsChronic health effectsReferences

Arsenic(i) Central nervous system
(ii) Lungs
(iii) Digestive tract
(iv) Circulatory system
(v) Kidneys
(i) Cancers
(ii) Peripheral vascular disease, which in its extreme form leads to gangrenous changes (black foot disease, only reported in Taiwan)
(iii) Skin lesions (melanosis, keratosis)
(iv) Hearing loss
(v) Reproductive toxicity
(vi) Hematologic disorders
(vii) Neurological diseases
(viii) Developmental abnormalities and neurobehavioral disorders
[28]

Lead(i) Central nervous system
(ii) Erythropoiesis
(iii) Kidneys
(iv) Liver
(i) Cancers
(ii) Kidney damage
(iii) Neurological diseases
(iv) Impaired intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children
[29]

Cadmium(i) Kidneys
(ii) Bone
(iii) Liver
(iv) Lungs
(i) Cancers
(ii) Kidney damage
(iii) Bronchiolitis, COPD, emphysema, fibrosis
(iv) Skeletal damage, first reported from Japan, the itai-itai (ouch-ouch) disease (a combination of osteomalacia and osteoporosis)
[30]

Mercury(i) Central nervous system
(ii) Kidneys
(iii) Liver
(iv) Lungs
(i) Lung damage
(ii) Kidney damage
(iii) Neurological diseases
(iv) Impaired intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children
(v) Metallic mercury is an allergen, which may cause contact eczema
(vi) Mercury from amalgam fillings may give rise to oral lichen
[31]