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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2012, Article ID 612647, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/612647
Research Article

Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

1Laboratorios de Citogenética y Mutagénesis Ambientales, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacán, 04510 México city, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Occidente, Boulevard Macario Gaxiola, Carretera Internacional, Los Mochis, SIN, 81223 México, Mexico
3Unidad Académica de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Avenida Lázaro Cárdenas S/N, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Ciudad Universitaria, Chilpancingo, GRO, 39090 México, Mexico
4Laboratorio de Química Atmosférica, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacán, 04510 México, Mexico

Received 17 June 2011; Revised 6 December 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011

Academic Editor: Brad Upham

Copyright © 2012 María Elena Calderón-Segura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Calypso (thiacloprid), Poncho (clothianidin), Gaucho (imidacloprid), and Jade (imidacloprid) are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9 . 5 × 1 0 6 to 5 . 7 × 1 0 5  M Jade; 2 . 8 × 1 0 4 to 1 . 7 × 1 0 3  M Gaucho; 0 . 6 × 1 0 1 to 1 . 4 × 1 0 1  M Calypso; 1 . 2 × 1 0 1 to 9 . 5 × 1 0 1  M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 1 8 × 1 0 3  M Jade, 2 . 0 × 1 0 3  M Gaucho, 2 . 0 × 1 0 1  M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 3 0 × 1 0 3  M Jade, 3 . 3 × 1 0 3  M Gaucho, 2 . 8 × 1 0 1  M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides.