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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 308286, 8 pages
Research Article

Proliferation and 1/2 Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after Treatment with Cypermethrin and Mancozeb In Vitro

1International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology, Kancheepuram District, Padappai, Tamil Nadu 601301, India
2National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Jamai Osmania, Hyderabad, Telagana 500 007, India

Received 27 June 2014; Revised 21 August 2014; Accepted 4 September 2014; Published 18 September 2014

Academic Editor: Robert Luebke

Copyright © 2014 Rajesh Mandarapu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) ) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) , interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45–30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNF and the 2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFN (1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (2) and stimulated IL-2 (1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings.