Table 4: Summary comparisons of chaotropic versus kosmotropic ions.

Chaotropes (water-structure breakers)Kosmotropes (water-structure makers)

Typically larger radius, singly charged ions with low charge densityTypically small radius, often multiply charged ions with high charge density
Interact more weakly with waters than water molecules interact with each otherInteract more strongly with waters than water molecules interact with each other
Interfere little with hydrogen bonds of the surrounding watersCapable of weakening and breaking hydrogen bonds of the surrounding waters
Decrease surface tension Increase surface tension
Reduce viscosityIncrease viscosity
Increase nonpolar solubilityDecrease nonpolar solubility
Unfold proteinsStabilize proteins
Destabilize hydrophobic aggregatesStabilize hydrophobic aggregates and bonding
Increase solubility of hydrophobic solutesReduce solubility of hydrophobic solutes
Salt in proteinsSalt out proteins
Net positive entropy of ion solvation Net negative entropy of ion solvation