Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2018, Article ID 3821797, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3821797
Research Article

Estimation and Human Health Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides in Raw Milk Marketed in Zagazig City, Egypt

1Educational Veterinary Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519, Egypt
2Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519, Egypt

Correspondence should be addressed to Wageh Sobhy Darwish; ge.ude.uz@hsiwradhegaw

Received 21 May 2018; Revised 20 July 2018; Accepted 1 August 2018; Published 12 August 2018

Academic Editor: Valerio Matozzo

Copyright © 2018 Amal A. Raslan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. John, N. Bakore, and P. Bhatnagar, “Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in dairy milk and buffalo milk from Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India,” Environment International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 231–236, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. A. Thompson, W. S. Darwish, Y. Ikenaka, S. M. M. Nakayama, H. Mizukawa, and M. Ishizuka, “Organochlorine pesticide contamination of foods in Africa: Incidence and public health significance,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 751–764, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. P. Agnihotri, “Pesticide safety evaluation and monitoring,” All India coordinated research project on pesticide residues New Delhi, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, 1999.
  4. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Codex Alimentarious Pesticide residues in Food–Maximum Residue Limits, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2nd edition, 2000.
  5. W. S. Darwish, Y. Ikenaka, W. R. El-Ghareeb, and M. Ishizuka, “High expression of the mRNA of cytochrome P450 and phase II enzymes in the lung and kidney tissues of cattle,” Animal, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2023–2029, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. B. Yohannes, Y. Ikenaka, S. M. M. Nakayama, A. Saengtienchai, K. Watanabe, and M. Ishizuka, “Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in fish from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia: insights from stable isotope analysis,” Chemosphere, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 857–863, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) International, “Official methods of analysis of AOAC International,” P. Cunnif, Ed., Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) International, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 16th edition, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)'s Integrated Risk Information System (USEPA IRIS), “United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)'s Integrated Risk Information System (USEPA IRIS),” 1998, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/ny_hh_361_w_03121998.pdf.
  9. World Health Organization (WHO), Dietary Exposure Assessment of Chemicals in Food (Chapter 6). Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. Environmental Health Criteria 240”. FAO/WHO. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2009, http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/principles/en/index.html.
  10. FAO/WHO, “Pesticide Residues in Food. Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Report of the Joint meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on PesticideResidues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome,” 2009.
  11. Q. T. Jiang, T. K. M. Lee, K. Chen et al., “Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 155–165, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. C. Heck, J. Sifuentes dos Santos, S. Bogusz Junior, I. Costabeber, and T. Emanuelli, “Estimation of children exposure to organochlorine compounds through milk in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil,” Food Chemistry, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 288–294, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. John, N. Bakore, and P. Bhatnagar, “Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in dairy milk and buffalo milk from Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India,” Environment International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 231–236, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. G. Darko and S. O. Acquaah, “Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in dairy products in Kumasi, Ghana,” Chemosphere, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 294–298, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Deti, A. Hymete, A. A. Bekhit, A. M. I. Mohamed, and A. E.-D. A. Bekhit, “Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia,” Chemosphere, vol. 106, pp. 70–74, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. A. E.-H. Khairy, M. Kolb, A. R. Mostafa, A. EL-Fiky, and M. Bahadir, “Risk posed by chlorinated organic compounds in Abu Qir Bay, East Alexandria, Egypt,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 794–811, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Prachar, M. Veningerova, J. Uhank et al., “Persistent organochlorine compounds in cows milk and butter,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 4, pp. 413–417, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  18. S. M. Waliszewski, R. Villalobos-Pietrini, S. Gómez-Arroyo, and R. M. Infanzón, “Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in cow's milk samples from tropical regions of Mexico,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 270–275, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Zhang, “Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in food of China,” Pesticide Science and Management, vol. 6, pp. 20–22, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  20. World Health Organization (WHO), Health risks of persistent organic pollutants from long-range transboundary air pollution, World Health Organization (WHO), 2003.
  21. E. M. Shaker and E. E. Elsharkawy, “Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 433–440, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Yahia and E. E. Elsharkawy, “Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 466-467, pp. 306–314, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. F. A. Mahmoud, W. S. Darwish, A. E. M. A. Morshdy, E. A. Eldaly, Y. Ikenaka, and M. Ishizuka, “Determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the edible offal of Egyptian buffalo,” Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 61, pp. S58–S63, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Kampire, B. T. Kiremire, S. A. Nyanzi, and M. Kishimba, “Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow's milk from Kampala markets,” Chemosphere, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 923–927, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. A. Hassal, Biochemistry and Uses of Pesticides, Macmillan Press Ltd., 1990.
  26. A. F. A. Mahmoud, Y. Ikenaka, Y. B. Yohannes et al., “Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in edible cattle tissues from northeastern part of Egypt: High accumulation level of OCPs in tongue,” Chemosphere, vol. 144, pp. 1365–1371, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. “ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), “Toxicological Profiles of Toxic Substances. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA”, 2005,” 2005, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov.
  28. V. Pardío, D. Martínez, A. Flores et al., “Human health risk of dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine meat and tissues from Veracruz, México,” Food Chemistry, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 1873–1893, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Zhou, L. Zhu, and Q. Kong, “Persistent chlorinated pesticides in fish species from Qiantang River in East China,” Chemosphere, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 838–847, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. McKinlay, J. A. Plant, J. N. B. Bell, and N. Voulvoulis, “Calculating human exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides via agricultural and non-agricultural exposure routes,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 398, no. 1-3, pp. 1–12, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. C. Windham, D. Lee, P. Mitchell, M. Anderson, M. Petreas, and B. Lasley, “Exposure to organochlorine compounds and effects on ovarian function,” Epidemiology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 182–190, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. W. Bretveld, M. Hooiveld, G. A. Zielhuis, A. Pellegrino, I. A. L. M. van Rooij, and N. Roeleveld, “Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 107–114, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus