Table of Contents
Journal of Theoretical Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 902423, 9 pages
Research Article

Free Will with Afterthoughts: A Quasichemical Model

CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Italy

Received 16 April 2013; Accepted 31 October 2013

Academic Editors: F. Aquilante, T. S. Chu, and E. E. Ebenso

Copyright © 2013 Andrea C. Levi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A model of free will is proposed, appealing to the similarity with simple, two-body chemical reactions where the energy curves for the reagents and for the products cross. The system at the crossing point has a freedom of choice to perform the reaction or not. The Landau-Zener formula, corresponding to the opportunity of meeting twice the crossing point, is interpreted as free will with an afterthought and generalized to the cases when a subject thinks about a choice times. If the probability distribution of afterthoughts is known, the probability of a final yes decision is given. The results are generalized to situations where a preference for or against a change exists or where the freedom is only partial, has to fight with conditioning factors, and possibly decreases with increasing instances of free choice.