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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 109705, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/109705
Research Article

Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

1Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, 1487 Avenue de l'Oubritenga, BP 2208, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso
2Groupe de Recherche Action en Santé, BP 10248, Secteur 25, Somgandé, Rue 25.26, Porte 79, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso

Received 1 June 2011; Revised 3 October 2011; Accepted 17 October 2011

Academic Editor: Ricardo E. Fretes

Copyright © 2012 Alphonse Ouédraogo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2%) had placental malaria and 14 (3.8%) had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia ( O R = 9 . 2 4 , 𝑃 0 . 0 0 1 ), placental parasitemia ( O R = 1 0 . 7 4 , 𝑃 0 . 0 0 1 ), high-density peripheral parasitemia ( O R = 9 . 6 2 , 𝑃 0 . 0 0 1 ), and high-density placental parasitemia ( O R = 4 . 9 1 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 ). In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low.