Influence of erythrocyte and immune response gene polymorphisms in malaria outcome. The diagram summarizes the major genetic alterations identified in the erythrocyte and immune response pathways that influence malaria outcome. The up arrow indicates susceptibility, and the down arrow indicates resistance to malaria. Contradictory or not confirmed results are represented by red font color. The protective effect of inherited genetic disorders involving the RBC on malaria infection has been associated with membrane cytoskeleton disorders, surface antigen mutations, enzymatic machinery deficiencies, or hemoglobin and its heme prosthetic group alterations. Considering the immune response, several polymorphisms in gene encoding the TLR receptors and in important cytokines involved in malaria immunopathology are described in the literature. Furthermore, genetic alterations in the FcgRIIA receptor and nitric oxide synthase were also associated with resistance/susceptibility to malaria.