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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 405875, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/405875
Research Article

Cryptosporidiosis in Iranian Farm Workers and Their Household Members: A Hypothesis about Possible Zoonotic Transmission

1Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Mollasadra Street, Vanak Square, Tehran 14359151371, Iran
2Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359151371, Iran
3Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359151371, Iran

Received 27 December 2013; Accepted 18 February 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editor: Luis E. Cuevas

Copyright © 2014 Morteza Izadi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and the risk factors of zoonotic transmission in Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran dairy farms were examined. Methods. One fecal sample was collected from all calves less than 6 months old in eight dairy farms around Najafabad (Isfahan province, Central Iran) as well as individuals working in these farms and their household members. A two-step nested PCR protocol was used to amplify the 18S rRNA gene (830 bp). Results. Cryptosporidium was identified in the stool of 36 (prevalence 8.5%) of 96 farm workers and 326 household members. Furthermore, 31 (14.2%) of 218 calf samples were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in 15 (72%) of the positive farm workers and 10 (65%) of the positive household members. Of the positive calves, 20 (64.5%) were infected with C. parvum, indicating possible zoonotic transmission in these farms. Contact with calves ( < 0.0001) was the most significant risk factor of C. parvum infection. A considerable negative association was observed between C. parvum infection and cleaning of shoes/boots after daily work ( = 0.004), hand washing ( = 0.013), and use of piped water ( < 0.006). In the multivariate analysis with logistic regression, only contact with calves was significant. Conclusion. Zoonotic transmission of C. parvum due to contact with calves is predominant among farm workers and their household members of this region and appropriate health measures must be applied to control the infection and decrease of zoonotic transmission of this parasite.