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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 8540830, 8 pages
Research Article

Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Received 26 June 2016; Revised 24 August 2016; Accepted 25 August 2016

Academic Editor: Jean P. Gonzalez

Copyright © 2016 Mohamed E. I. Badawy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene) were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone) on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min) followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min) and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min). Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol) monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.). Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations.