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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 9819723, 12 pages
Research Article

Phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Hydroelectric System Affected Area from Northern Amazonian Brazil: Further Insights into the Effects of Environmental Changes on Vector Ecology

1Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas do Estado do Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brazil
2Universidade Federal do Amapá, Campus Binacional, Oiapoque, AP, Brazil
3Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Ananindeua, PA, Brazil

Received 3 August 2016; Revised 6 October 2016; Accepted 12 October 2016

Academic Editor: Aditya Prasad Dash

Copyright © 2016 Nercy Virginia Rabelo Furtado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


During 2012–2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the Santo Antônio do Jari hydroelectric system (Amapá State, Brazil). The purpose was to study aspects of Amazon/Guianan American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. For sampling, CDC light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the Jari River Basin. Fluctuations in phlebotomine numbers were analyzed to determine any correlation with rainfall, dam waterlogging, and/or ACL cases, from May 2012 to March 2015. We captured 2,800 individuals, and among 45 species identified, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Nyssomyia umbratilis, and Psychodopygus squamiventris s.l. were determined to be the main putative vectors, based on current knowledge of the Amazon/Guianan ACL scenario. Rainfall, but not complete flooding, was relatively correlated with phlebotomine fluctuation, mainly observed for Ps. squamiventris s.l., as were ACL cases with Ny. umbratilis. Behavioral changes were observed in the unexpected high frequency of Bi. flaviscutellata among CDC captures and the noncanopy dominance of Ny. umbratilis, possibly attributable to environmental stress in the sampled ecotopes. Continuous entomological surveillance is necessary to monitor the outcomes of these findings.