Figure 1: Indications for starting the treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection [1]. : Alanine Aminotransferase. : upper normal limit. ULN is 30 U/L for men and 19 U/L for females. fibrosis is defined by liver stiffness ≥ 8 kPa (by Fibroscan) or [AST]-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥ 1.5. cirrhosis is determined by liver stiffness ≥ 11 kPa (by Fibroscan) or APRI ≥ 2.0.