Figure 2: The effect of HSO on IL6 (a), IL8 (b), IL10 (c), and TNF-α (d) production in PBMCs and LPS-treated PBMCs. PBMCs were separated using Ficoll-Paque density centrifugation, seeded in 12-well plates, and treated with 10 μg/ml LPS and HSO at the indicated concentration for 24 h. Levels of IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α secretion were determined using ELISA with specific antibodies to each cytokine. p < 0.05 compared to control group; p < 0.05 compared to LPS-treated group alone.