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Figure 3: The effect of AHK on IL6 (a), IL8 (b), IL10 (c), and TNF-α (d) production in PBMCs and LPS-treated PBMCs. PBMCs were separated using Ficoll-Paque density centrifugation, seeded in 12-well plates, and treated with 10 μg/ml LPS and AHK at the indicated concentrations for 24 h. The levels of IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α secretion were determined using ELISA with specific antibodies to each cytokine. p < 0.05 compared to control group; p < 0.05 compared to LPS-treated group alone.