Table of Contents
Journal of Toxins
Volume 2015, Article ID 167492, 7 pages
Research Article

Cytotoxiciy of Naja nubiae (Serpentes: Elapidae) and Echis ocellatus (Serpentes: Viperidae) Venoms from Sudan

1Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum, Sudan
2Department of Immunology, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 11463, Khartoum, Sudan
3Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia

Received 25 December 2014; Revised 1 March 2015; Accepted 2 March 2015

Academic Editor: A. M. Soares

Copyright © 2015 Huda Khalid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In Sudan, as in many African countries, no local specific antivenom is manufactured resulting in snake bite victims being treated by antivenoms imported from abroad. In the present work we measured the cytotoxic effect of the recently described spitting cobra (Naja nubiae) and the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) snake venoms using a cell based assay. We also investigated the efficacy of four antivenoms CSL (Australia), SAIMR (South Africa), snake venom antiserum (India), and EchiTAb-Plus-ICP (Cost Rica) to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the two venoms. The venoms resulted in a remarkable inhibition of cell viability with N. nubiae being more cytotoxic than E. ocellatus. The four antivenoms studied were effective in neutralizing N. nubiae cytotoxicity. However, only partial efficacy in neutralizing the cytotoxic effect of E. ocellatus was achieved using CSL (Australia) and SVA (India) antivenoms. Based on the cross neutralization by the four antivenoms, the Sudanese N. nubiae venom most likely has homologous epitopes with similar snakes from Australia, South Africa, India, and Cost Rica, while E. ocellatus venom from Sudan shares little homology with similar snakes from other countries.