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Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 215718, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/215718
Review Article

Thyroid Hormone and the Neuroglia: Both Source and Target

1Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, H-1083, Hungary
2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA

Received 19 March 2011; Revised 31 May 2011; Accepted 17 June 2011

Academic Editor: Juan Bernal

Copyright © 2011 Petra Mohácsik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. In order to bind to its nuclear receptor and regulate gene transcription thyroxine needs to be activated in the brain. This activation occurs via conversion of thyroxine to T3, which is catalyzed by the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in glial cells, in astrocytes, and tanycytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus. We discuss how thyroid hormone affects glial cell function followed by an overview on the fine-tuned regulation of T3 generation by D2 in different glial subtypes. Recent evidence on the direct paracrine impact of glial D2 on neuronal gene expression underlines the importance of glial-neuronal interaction in thyroid hormone regulation as a major regulatory pathway in the brain in health and disease.