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Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 384213, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/384213
Review Article

Recent Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Henry Dunant Hospital, Thision, 11851 Athens, Greece
2Oncology Unit, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Sotiria General Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 22 November 2010; Accepted 24 January 2011

Academic Editor: Guillermo Juvenal

Copyright © 2011 Ioannis Legakis and Konstantinos Syrigos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recent molecular studies have described a number of abnormalities associated with the progression and dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma. These distinct molecular events are often associated with specific stages of tumor development. In particular, remarkable advances have occurred in several major biological areas of thyroid cancer, including the molecular alterations for the loss of radioiodine avidity of thyroid cancer, the pathogenic role of the MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt pathways and their related genetic alterations, and the aberrant methylation of functionally important genes in thyroid tumorigenesis and pathogenesis. Recognition of these features is crucial to the management of patients with thyroid cancer. Novel treatments are being designed based on our enhanced understanding of this disease process.