Table 1: Estrogen receptor (ER) in human normal thyroid, and benign and malignant thyroid diseases.

StudyMethodNormalAll benign lesionsAll neoplastic lesionsAll carcinomaBenign lesionsCarcinoma
AdenomaGoiterPapillaryFollicularMedullaryAnaplastic

Tavangar et al. [10]; 2007IHC8/3731/13037/1192/180/350/12
Arain et al. [11]; 2003IHC0/250/90/80/190/100/4
Lewy-Trenda et al. [12]; 1998IHC2/190/204/83/50/4
Valle et al. [13]; 1998RT-PCR28/3312/126/726/261/11/11/1
Bonacci et al. [14]; 1996DCC26/3811/287/20
Jaklic et al. [15]; 1995IHC0/10/50/40/1
Colomer et al. [16]; 1996IHC1/7
Inoue et al. [17]; 1993IHC24/74
Inoue et al. [18]; 1993IHC18/70
Yane et al. [19]; 1994RT-PCR5/27
Yane et al. [20]; 1993IHC0/102/192/120/7
Hiasa et al. [21]; 1993IHC44/13023/3919/1157/230/6
Diaz et al. [22]; 1991IHC20/3023/3011/20
Mizukami et al. [23]; 1991IHC8/184/847/62
Takeichi et al. [24]; 1991IHC11/121/6
Hong et al. [25]; 1991IHC1/271/20
Miki et al. [26]; 1990DCC0/1412/467/235/112/126/200/11/1
Haruta et al. [27]; 1990IHC30/520/12
Chaudhuri et al. [28]; 1989SDG3/87/95/238/80/6
Money et al. [29]; 1989IHC20/22
Clark et al. [30]; 1985SDG14/15
Hampl [15]; 1985RBA0/80/5
Molteni et al. [37]; 1981SDG0/22/4

Data are shown as number of ER-positive samples/total number of samples. IHC: immunohistochemical assay; DCC: dextran-coated charcoal assay; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique; SDG: sucrose density gradient assay; RBA: radioligand binding assay.