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Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 648395, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/648395
Review Article

Thyroid Hormones and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Department of Pharmacology, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Avenue, Goudi, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 11 February 2013; Accepted 16 March 2013

Academic Editor: Constantinos Pantos

Copyright © 2013 Ioannis D. Papakostas and George A. Macheras. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peripheral nerve regeneration is a unique process in which cellular rather than tissue response is involved. Depending on the extent and proximity of the lesion and the age and type of the neuronal soma, the cell body may either initiate a reparative response or may die. Microsurgical intervention may alter the prognosis after a peripheral nerve injury but to a certain extent. By altering the biochemical microenvironment of the neuron, we can increase the proportion of neurons that survive the injury and initiate the reparative response. Thyroid hormone critically regulates tissue growth and differentiation and plays a crucial role during organ development. Furthermore, recent research has provided new insight into thyroid hormone cellular action. Thyroid hormone regulates stress response intracellular signaling and targets molecules important for cytoskeletal stability and cell integrity. Changes in thyroid hormone signaling occur in nerve and other tissues, with important physiological consequences. The interest in thyroid hormone in the context of nerve regeneration has recently been revived.