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Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 872410, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/872410
Research Article

Impact of Maternal Thyroperoxidase Status on Fetal Body and Brain Size

1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs, MDC56, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 2 Tampa General Circle, STC, 6th Floor Tampa, FL 33606, USA
3College of Nursing, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs, MDC22, Tampa, FL 33612, USA

Received 6 September 2013; Revised 5 November 2013; Accepted 23 November 2013; Published 29 January 2014

Academic Editor: Gary L. Francis

Copyright © 2014 Roneé E. Wilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The obstetric consequences of abnormal thyroid function during pregnancy have been established. Less understood is the influence of maternal thyroid autoantibodies on infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of maternal thyroperoxidase (TPO) status on fetal/infant brain and body growth. Six-hundred thirty-one (631) euthyroid pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in Tampa Bay, Florida, and the surrounding area between November 2007 and December 2010. TPO status was determined during pregnancy and fetal/infant brain and body growth variables were assessed at delivery. Regression analysis revealed maternal that TPO positivity was significantly associated with smaller head circumference, reduced brain weight, and lower brain-to-body ratio among infants born to TPO+ white, non-Hispanic mothers only, distinguishing race/ethnicity as an effect modifier in the relationship. No significant differences were noted in body growth measurements among infants born to TPO positive mothers of any racial/ethnic group. Currently, TPO antibody status is not assessed as part of the standard prenatal care laboratory work-up, but findings from this study suggest that fetal brain growth may be impaired by TPO positivity among certain populations; therefore autoantibody screening among high-risk subgroups may be useful for clinicians to determine whether prenatal thyroid treatment is warranted.