Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 872410, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/872410
Research Article

Impact of Maternal Thyroperoxidase Status on Fetal Body and Brain Size

1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs, MDC56, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 2 Tampa General Circle, STC, 6th Floor Tampa, FL 33606, USA
3College of Nursing, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs, MDC22, Tampa, FL 33612, USA

Received 6 September 2013; Revised 5 November 2013; Accepted 23 November 2013; Published 29 January 2014

Academic Editor: Gary L. Francis

Copyright © 2014 Roneé E. Wilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Nader, “Thyroid disease and pregnancy,” in Maternal-Fetal Medicine, R. Creasy, R. Resnik, and J. Iams, Eds., pp. 1063–1081, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. Negro, A. Schwartz, R. Gismondi, A. Tinelli, T. Mangieri, and A. Stagnaro-Green, “Universal screening versus case finding for detection and treatment of thyroid hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1699–1707, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Stagnaro-Green and A. Schwartz, “Is universal screening for thyroid disease in pregnancy a cost-effective strategy?” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 598–599, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Stagnaro-Green, M. Abalovich, E. Alexander et al., “Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum,” Thyroid, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1081–1125, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. C. Galofre and T. F. Davies, “Autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnancy: a review,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1847–1856, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Forehan, “Thyroid disease in the perinatal period,” Australian Family Physician, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 578–581, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. M. de Escobar, M. J. Obregón, and F. E. del Rey, “Maternal thyroid hormones early in pregnancy and fetal brain development,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 225–248, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  8. W. C. Allan, J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki et al., “Maternal thyroid deficiency and pregnancy complications: implications for population screening,” Journal of Medical Screening, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 127–130, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki, W. C. Allan et al., “Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 8, pp. 549–555, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Glinoer, M. F. Soto, P. Bourdoux et al., “Pregnancy in patients with mild thyroid abnormalities: maternal and neonatal repercussions,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 421–427, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Abramson and A. Stagnaro-Green, “Thyroid antibodies and fetal loss: an evolving story,” Thyroid, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Lazarus, “Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, and management,” Treatments in Endocrinology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 31–41, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. F. Prummel and W. M. Wiersinga, “Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. E. Wasserman, K. Nelson, N. R. Rose et al., “Maternal thyroid autoantibodies during the third trimester and hearing deficits in children: an epidemiologic assessment,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 701–710, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Dallas, “Autoimmune thyroid disease and pregnancy: elevance for the child,” Autoimmunity, vol. 36, no. 6-7, pp. 339–350, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. Lazarus, “Thyroid hormone and intellectual development: a clinician's view,” Thyroid, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 659–660, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. J. Pop, E. De Vries, A. L. Van Baar et al., “Maternal thyroid peroxidase antibodies during pregnancy: a marker of impaired child development?” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 3561–3566, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Negro and A. Stagnaro-Green, “Thyroid autoantibodies, preterm birth, and miscarriage,” BMJ, vol. 342, p. d2260, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Stagnaro-Green and D. Glinoer, “Thyroid autoimmunity and the risk of miscarriage,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 167–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Stagnaro-Green, “Thyroid antibodies and miscarriage: where are we at a generation later?” Journal of Thyroid Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 841949, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. T. Männistö, M. Vääräsmäki, A. Pouta et al., “Perinatal outcome of children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction or antibodies: a prospective population-based cohort study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 772–779, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Männistö, M. Vääräsmäki, A. Pouta et al., “Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies during pregnancy as predictive factors of pregnancy complications and maternal morbidity in later life,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1084–1094, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Männistö, M. Vääräsmäki, and E. Suvanto, “Pregnancy outcomes in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 174–176, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Abbassi-Ghanavati, B. M. Casey, C. Y. Spong, D. D. McIntire, L. M. Halvorson, and F. G. Cunningham, “Pregnancy outcomes in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 381–386, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Bech, J. Hertel, N. G. Rasmussen et al., “Effect of maternal thyroid autoantibodies and post-partum thyroiditis on the fetus and neonate,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 146–149, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. R. Gale, F. J. O'Callaghan, M. Bredow, and C. N. Martyn, “The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 1486–1492, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. J. Gross, N. Kosmetatos, C. T. Grimes, and M. L. Williams, “Newborn head size and neurological status. Predictors of growth and development of low birth weight infants,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 132, no. 8, pp. 753–756, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. H. Gilles, A. Leviton, and E. C. Dooling, The Developing Human Brain: Growth and Epidemiologic Neuropathology, J. Wright-PSG, Boston, Mass, USA, 1983.
  29. A. A. Lindley, R. H. Gray, A. A. Herman, and S. Becker, “Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and infant ponderal index at birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1991-1992,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 420–423, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Papiernik, G. R. Alexander, and N. Paneth, “Racial differences in pregnancy duration and its implications for perinatal care,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 181–186, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. R. Patel, P. Steer, P. Doyle, M. P. Little, and P. Elliott, “Does gestation vary by ethnic group? A London-based study of over 122 000 pregnancies with spontaneous onset of labour,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 107–113, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. A. Brent, SpringerLink. Thyroid Function Testing, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  33. S. Thangaratinam, A. Tan, E. Knox, M. D. Kilby, J. Franklyn, and A. Coomarasamy, “Association between thyroid autoantibodies and miscarriage and preterm birth: meta-analysis of evidence,” BMJ, vol. 342, p. d2616, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Glinoer, “Miscarriage in women with positive anti-TPO antibodies: is thyroxine the answer?” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2500–2502, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. K. Alexander, “Autoimmunity: thyroid autoantibodies and pregnancy risk,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 501–502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Poppe and D. Glinoer, “Thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism before and during pregnancy,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 149–161, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Iijima, H. Tada, Y. Hidaka, N. Mitsuda, Y. Murata, and N. Amino, “Effects of autoantibodies on the course of pregnancy and fetal growth,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 364–369, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Negro, G. Formoso, T. Mangieri, A. Pezzarossa, D. Dazzi, and H. Hassan, “Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2587–2591, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus