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Journal of Transplantation
Volume 2011, Article ID 352043, 6 pages
Review Article

Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets

1Department of Medical Cell Biology, Husargatan 3, P.O. Box 571, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
2Preclinical PET Platform, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
3Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden

Received 27 May 2011; Accepted 20 September 2011

Academic Editor: Antonello Pileggi

Copyright © 2011 Daniel Espes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation.