Figure 5: Intragraft cytokine gene expression. Real-time PCR was used to examine cytokine gene expression changes after transplantation of hearts that were (a) fully mismatched at the MHC or (b) partially mismatched at the MHC when compared to their recipients. Interferon-γ was not significantly expressed in the transduced hearts but was highly expressed in hearts that were not genetically modified prior to transplantation. IL-17a, IL-17b, IL-17e, and IL-17f were upregulated at rejection (* comparing ΔΔCT allograft versus HO-1 allograft + cyclosporine (a). IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts were significantly elevated after AAV6-HO-1 transduction of the donor hearts, IL-1β was significantly downregulated when compared with nontransduced control allografts. The upregulated genes = ΔΔCT(Experimental)/ΔΔCT(Control) where . The downregulated genes = log2(ΔΔCT(Experimental)/ΔΔCT(Control)) where . Samples were run in triplicate and represent a minimum of three biological replicates from each group.