Table of Contents
Journal of Viruses
Volume 2015, Article ID 646303, 15 pages
Research Article

Analogs of LDL Receptor Ligand Motifs in Dengue Envelope and Capsid Proteins as Potential Codes for Cell Entry

Biophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, One West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA

Received 9 December 2014; Revised 17 March 2015; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: Tatiana Betakova

Copyright © 2015 Juan Guevara Jr. et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is established that cell entry of low density lipoprotein particles (LLPs) containing Apo B100 and Apo E is mediated by receptors and GAGs. Receptor ligand motifs, XBBBXXBX, XBBXBX, and ΨBΨXB, and mono- and bipartite NLS sequences are abundant in Apo E and Apo B100 as well as in envelope and capsid proteins of dengue viruses 1–4 (DENV1–4). Synthetic, fluorescence-labeled peptides of sequences in DENV2 envelope protein, and DENV3 capsid that include these motifs were used to conduct a qualitative assessment of cell binding and entry capacity using HeLa cells. DENV2 envelope peptide, Dsp2EP, 0564Gly-Gly0595, was shown to bind and remain at the cell surface. In contrast, DENV3 capsid protein peptide, Dsp3CP, 0002Asn-Gln0028, readily enters HeLa cells and accumulates at discrete loci in the nucleus. FITC-labeled dengue synthetic peptides colocalize with low density lipoprotein-CM-DiI and Apo E-CM-DiI to a degree suggesting that dengue viruses may utilize cell entry pathways used by LLPs.