Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 2743187, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2743187
Research Article

Serological Screening Suggests Extensive Presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Backyard Chickens in Southern Mozambique

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Av. de Moçambique Km 1,5, Maputo, Mozambique
2Kyeema Foundation, Av. de Moçambique Km 1,5, Maputo, Mozambique

Correspondence should be addressed to Custódio Gabriel Bila; zm.meu@alib.oidotsuc

Received 26 October 2016; Accepted 29 December 2016; Published 22 January 2017

Academic Editor: Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

Copyright © 2017 Augusto Messa Júnior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. R. Say, Manual of Poultry Production in the Tropics, Cab International, Wallingford, UK, 1987.
  2. K. Bouzoubaa, K. Lemainguer, and J. G. Bell, “Village chickens as a reservoir of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum in Morocco,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1-2, pp. 95–100, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Stipkovits and I. Kempf, “Mycoplasmoses in poultry,” Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol. 15, pp. 1495–1525, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. J. M. Bradbury, “Avian mycoplasmosis,” in Poultry Diseases, J. M. Bradbury, Ed., pp. 178–193, W.B. Saunders Company, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. D. Evans, S. A. Leigh, S. L. Branton, S. D. Collier, G. T. Pharr, and S. M. D. Bearson, “Mycoplasma gallisepticum: current and developing means to control the Avian pathogen,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 757–763, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. H. Ley, “Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection,” in Disease of Poultry, A. M. Fadly, J. R. Gilson, L. R. McDougald, L. K. Nolan, and D. E. Swanye, Eds., pp. 807–834, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. H. Kleven, “Mycoplasmas in the etiology of multifactorial respiratory disease,” Poultry Science, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 1146–1149, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Seifi and M. R. Shirzad, “Seroprevalence and risk factors of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in iranian broiler breeder farms,” International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 4, pp. 45–48, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. H. Ley, “Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection,” in Disease of Poultry, B. W. Calnek, H. J. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald, and Y. M. Saif, Eds., pp. 722–744, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. L. Hennigan, J. D. Driskell, N. Ferguson-Noel et al., “Detection and differentiation of avian mycoplasmas by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy based on a silver nanorod array,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 1930–1935, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. H. Kleven, “Mycoplasma synoviae infection,” in Disease of Poultry, Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, J. R. Glisson, A. M. Fadly, L. R. McDougald, and D. E. Swayne, Eds., pp. 756–765, University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. H. Kleven, “Poultry: mycoplasmosis,” in The Merck Veterinar Manual, C. M. Kahn, Ed., pp. 2242–2246, Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  13. P. J. Kelly, D. Chitauro, C. Rohde et al., “Diseases and management of backyard chicken flocks in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe,” Avian Diseases, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 626–629, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Z. Mushi, M. G. Binta, R. G. Chabo, M. Mathaio, and R. T. Ndebele, “Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies in the sera of indigenous chickens by rapid serum agglutination test at Mmopane, Gaborone, Botswana,” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 333–334, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. A. A. M. Chrysostome, J. G. Bell, F. Demey, and A. Verhulst, “Sero prevalences to three diseases in village chickens in Benin,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 257–261, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. M. O. Thekisoe, P. A. Mbati, and S. P. R. Bisschop, “Diseases of free-ranging chickens in the Qwa-Qwa district of the northeastern Free State province of South Africa,” Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 14–16, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Chaka, F. Goutard, S. P. R. Bisschop, and P. N. Thompson, “Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia,” Poultry Science, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 862–869, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Ministério de Adiministração Estatal, Perfil do Distrito de Mandlakaze, 2005.
  19. INE, Estatística do Distrito de Mandlakaze, 2012.
  20. L. Naing, T. Winn, and B. N. Rusli, “Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies,” Archives of Orofacial Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 9–14, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  21. L. M. Kelly and L. C. Alworth, “Techniques for collecting blood from the domestic chicken,” Lab Animal, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 359–361, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. M. Hernandez-Divers, P. Villegas, F. Prieto et al., “A survey of selected avian pathogens of backyard poultry in northwestern Ecuador,” Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 147–158, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. J. Sikder, M. A. Islam, M. M. Rahman, and M. B. Rahman, “Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the six model breeder poultry farms at Patuakhali district in Bangladesh,” International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 905–910, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Xavier, D. Pascal, E. Crespo, H. L. Schell, J. A. Trinidad, and D. J. Bueno, “Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of Entre Ríos in Argentina,” Poultry Science, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 746–751, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. B. C. Silva, W. F. Chagas, R. F. Santos, L. R. Gomes, M. R. Ganda, and A. M. C. Lima, “Seroprevalence of salmonella and mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of triângulo mineiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil,” Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Wunderwald and R. K. Hoop, “Serological monitoring of 40 Swiss fancy breed poultry flocks,” Avian Pathology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 157–162, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Suzuki, J. Origlia, F. Álvarez et al., “Relative risk estimation for Mycoplasma synoviae in backyard chickens in Paraguay,” International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 842–847, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. M. Hernandez-Divers, P. Villegas, C. Jimenez et al., “Backyard chicken flocks pose a disease risk for neotropic birds in Costa Rica,” Avian Diseases, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 558–566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus