Journal of Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Serological Screening Suggests Extensive Presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Backyard Chickens in Southern Mozambique Sun, 22 Jan 2017 14:31:26 +0000 A total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in Mandlakazi district, Southern Mozambique, were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [ELISA] kits. Anti-MG and anti-MS antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% CI 39.1–57.8] and 84.5% [95% CI 76.8–90.4], respectively. The risk of being seropositive for both diseases was higher [] in Chidenguele village than other villages. It is concluded that MG and MS serum antibodies are present in backyard chickens. Augusto Messa Júnior, Paula Taunde, Ana Felicidade Zandamela, Alberto Pondja Junior, Abel Chilundo, Rosa Costa, and Custódio Gabriel Bila Copyright © 2017 Augusto Messa Júnior et al. All rights reserved. Infestation and Identification of Ixodid Tick in Cattle: The Case of Arbegona District, Southern Ethiopia Mon, 26 Dec 2016 09:31:26 +0000 The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (). There was also significantly () higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention. Jelalu Kemal, Nateneal Tamerat, and Temesgen Tuluka Copyright © 2016 Jelalu Kemal et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Ticks in Cattle in the New Pastoral Farming Areas in Rufiji District, Tanzania Mon, 21 Nov 2016 13:51:41 +0000 Ticks and tick-borne diseases plus trypanosomosis are a constraint to cattle rearing in Tanzania. Rufiji district was not known for important ticks infesting cattle because inhabitants were not engaged in keeping livestock. Not only has settlement of pastoralists and cattle in Rufiji increased the number of cattle but also cattle have been the source of bringing in and spreading of ticks. This study investigated tick species that have been introduced and managed to establish themselves in the new livestock farming areas in cattle in Rufiji. Tick distribution study was undertaken in three villages of Chumbi ward seasonally in 2009, 2011, and 2012. The identified ticks were Amblyomma variegatum (56.10%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (10.25%), R. microplus (27.40%), and R. appendiculatus (6.19%) out of 12940 ticks. Results indicate that ticks are present in the new livestock settlement areas. The occurrence of ticks is correlated with the recent settlement of cattle in the district. Kamilius A. Mamiro, Henry B. Magwisha, Elpidius J. Rukambile, Martin R. Ruheta, Expery J. Kimboka, Deusdedit J. Malulu, and Imna I. Malele Copyright © 2016 Kamilius A. Mamiro et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia Tue, 06 Sep 2016 07:13:04 +0000 Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, ) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, ). Each dog’s age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (). There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples () but not within breed () or sex (). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions. Ngonda Saasa, King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Ethel M’kandawire, and Joyce Siwila Copyright © 2016 Ngonda Saasa et al. All rights reserved. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens Thu, 11 Aug 2016 11:30:52 +0000 Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. H. B. Aliyu, L. Sa’idu, A. Jamilu, A. D. Andamin, and S. O. Akpavie Copyright © 2016 H. B. Aliyu et al. All rights reserved. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds Wed, 15 Jun 2016 09:17:16 +0000 Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic) (). When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement. Stephanie A. Thomovsky, Annie V. Chen, Alecia M. Kiszonas, and Lori A. Lutskas Copyright © 2016 Stephanie A. Thomovsky et al. All rights reserved. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) Wed, 09 Mar 2016 13:34:24 +0000 The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. Carlos Hermosilla, Liliana M. R. Silva, Mauricio Navarro, and Anja Taubert Copyright © 2016 Carlos Hermosilla et al. All rights reserved. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats Tue, 23 Feb 2016 09:48:35 +0000 We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos, Judith Marcela Duenas Jimenez, Ismael Jimenez Estrada, Jacinto Banuelos Pineda, Nancy Elizabeth Franco Rodriguez, Jose Roberto Lopez Ruiz, Laura Paulina Osuna Carrasco, Ahiezer Candanedo Arellano, and Sergio Horacio Duenas Jimenez Copyright © 2016 Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study” Wed, 20 Jan 2016 16:09:28 +0000 Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru Copyright © 2016 Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru. All rights reserved. Comment on “Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar” Tue, 12 Jan 2016 13:12:00 +0000 Maria Teresa Galán-Puchades and Màrius Vicent Fuentes Copyright © 2016 Maria Teresa Galán-Puchades and Màrius Vicent Fuentes. All rights reserved. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Animal-Source Salmonella Heidelberg Isolates Sun, 03 Jan 2016 09:51:51 +0000 Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is frequently implicated in human foodborne Salmonella infections and often produces more severe clinical disease than other serotypes. Livestock and poultry products represent a potential risk for transmission to humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 49 S. Heidelberg veterinary isolates for exponential growth rate (EGR), PFGE pattern, and antimicrobial resistance to evaluate these parameters as mechanisms by which S. Heidelberg emerged as a virulent foodborne pathogen. Isolates were categorized by species of origin; clinical or environmental sources; and time frame of recovery. Growth rates were determined in nutrient media using serial dilutions and colony counts; PFGE was performed according to the CDC PulseNet protocol. Minimum inhibitory concentration and susceptibility determinations were performed against antimicrobials important in human medicine. Eighteen unique PFGE patterns were detected in the isolates tested. Antimicrobial resistance was significantly greater () for ten of 15 drugs in clinical over environmental isolates; for four drugs between the time frames; and for ten drugs between species of origin. The large genetic diversity present in isolates of this serotype may convey competitive advantages to this organism, while the presence of antimicrobial resistance represents a potential zoonotic risk via animal-source food products. Kristin A. Clothier and Barbara A. Byrne Copyright © 2016 Kristin A. Clothier and Barbara A. Byrne. All rights reserved. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results Tue, 23 Jun 2015 06:59:33 +0000 Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs’ plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs () and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels () after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. Sara Sechi, Francesca Chiavolelli, Nicoletta Spissu, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Sergio Canello, Gianandrea Guidetti, Filippo Fiore, and Raffaella Cocco Copyright © 2015 Sara Sechi et al. All rights reserved. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia Sun, 05 Apr 2015 09:58:24 +0000 This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using -test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied () in sheep but not in goats (). Body condition score was not significantly associated () with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. Zewdu Seyoum, Tsegaye Tadesse, and Agerie Addisu Copyright © 2015 Zewdu Seyoum et al. All rights reserved. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria Mon, 23 Mar 2015 07:12:36 +0000 Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. N. B. Alhaji and O. O. Babalobi Copyright © 2015 N. B. Alhaji and O. O. Babalobi. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar Thu, 26 Feb 2015 09:57:15 +0000 Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (; 95% ), increased age (; 95% ), husbandry system (; 95% ), feed type (; 95% ), not using anthelmintics in pigs (; 95% ), not using anthelmintics in owner (; 95% ), no hand-washing before feeding (; 95% ), and pork consumption of owner (; 95% ) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. Tin Aye Khaing, Saw Bawm, Soe Soe Wai, Ye Htut, and Lat Lat Htun Copyright © 2015 Tin Aye Khaing et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria Tue, 03 Feb 2015 06:15:58 +0000 Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (, ). However, there was a statistically significant association (, ) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. A. S. Sa’idu, E. C. Okolocha, A. A. Dzikwi, J. K. P. Kwaga, A. A. Gamawa, A. Usman, S. A. Maigari, and S. Ibrahim Copyright © 2015 A. S. Sa’idu et al. All rights reserved. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria Sat, 31 Jan 2015 13:11:16 +0000 Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents’ awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel’s practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). A. S. Sa’idu, E. C. Okolocha, A. A. Dzikwi, A. A. Gamawa, S. Ibrahim, J. K. P. Kwaga, A. Usman, and S. A. Maigari Copyright © 2015 A. S. Sa’idu et al. All rights reserved. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:47:28 +0000 Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study’s purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student’s unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed and . The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water. Dominic J. Vitello, Richard M. Ripper, Michael R. Fettiplace, Guy L. Weinberg, and Joseph M. Vitello Copyright © 2015 Dominic J. Vitello et al. All rights reserved. Ex Vivo Anatomical Characterization of Handsewn or Stapled Jejunocecal Anastomosis in Horses by Computed Tomography Scan Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 The aim of this study is to compare handsewn and stapled jejunocecal anastomosis with different stomal lengths in terms of anatomical differences. Group 1 underwent a two-layer handsewn jejunocecal side-to-side anastomosis (HS); Group 2 received a stapled jejunocecal side-to-side anastomosis (GIA). Each group was divided into two subgroups (HS80 and HS100, GIA80 and GIA100). Specimens were inflated and CT scanned. The stomal/jejunal area ratio and blind end pouch volume/area were measured and compared. Effective length of the stoma was measured and compared with the initial length. Stomal/jejunal area ratio was 1.1 for both 80 techniques, 1.6 for the GIA100, and 1.9 for the HS100 technique. Both HS and GIA techniques produced a blind end pouch and exhibited a mean increase of the final stomal length ranging from 6 to 11% greater than the original stomal length. All techniques will exhibit a length increase of the final stomal length compared to the intended stomal length, with a consequent increase in stomal area. Stapled techniques consistently produced a large distal blind end pouch. Length of a jejunocecal anastomosis should be selected in accordance with the diameter of afferent jejunum, and the 80 mm stomal length could be deemed sufficient in horses. Gessica Giusto, Bryan Iotti, Federica Sammartano, Alberto Valazza, and Marco Gandini Copyright © 2014 Gessica Giusto et al. All rights reserved. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru Sun, 30 Nov 2014 12:53:04 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4%) for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality. Patrick D. Mathews, Antonio F. Malheiros, Narda D. Vasquez, and Milton D. Chavez Copyright © 2014 Patrick D. Mathews et al. All rights reserved. Subcutaneous Implants of Buprenorphine-Cholesterol-Triglyceride Powder in Mice Thu, 27 Nov 2014 09:48:50 +0000 Subcutaneous drug implants are convenient systems for the long-term delivery of drugs in animals. Lipid carriers are logical tools because they generally allow for higher doses and low toxicity. The present study used an US Food and Drug Administration Target Animal Safety test system to evaluate the safety of a subcutaneous implant of a cholesterol-triglyceride-buprenorphine powder in 120 BALB/c mice. Mice were evaluated in 4- and 12-day trials with 1- and 5-fold doses of the intended 3 mg/kg dose of drug. One male mouse treated with three 3 mg/kg doses and surgery on days 0, 4, and 8 died on day 9. The cause of death was not determined. In the surviving 119 mice there was no evidence of skin reaction at the site of the implant. Compared to control animals treated with saline, weight measurements, clinical pathology, histopathology, and clinical observations were unremarkable. These results demonstrate that the lipid carrier is substantially safe. Cholesterol-triglyceride-drug powders may provide a valuable research tool for studies of analgesic and inflammatory drug implants in veterinary medicine. L. DeTolla, R. Sanchez, E. Khan, B. Tyler, and M. Guarnieri Copyright © 2014 L. DeTolla et al. All rights reserved. Biological Pathotyping of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Sudan 2008–2013 Wed, 26 Nov 2014 14:11:50 +0000 The biological properties and pathogenicity of seven Newcastle disease virus field isolates were studied. These isolates were recovered from different outbreaks in Sudan (5 from chickens and 2 from pigeons) during 2008–2013. Based on intracerebral pathogenicity index, four NDV isolates were characterized as velogenic (their ICPI ranged 2.0–1.6) and three isolates were characterized as mesogenic (ICPI ranged 1.2–1.3). The mean death time for all isolates ranged from 54 to 76.8 hours. The elution time of the viruses from chicken erythrocytes and the ability to haemagglutinate mammalian red blood cells differed considerably in their reactions. Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim Bilal, Iman Mohammed Elnasri, Aymen Mohamed Alhassan, Khalda Abdelaziz Khalifa, Jedddha Ibrahim Elhag, and Selma Osman Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim Bilal et al. All rights reserved. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:46:59 +0000 The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX) on total clinical score (TCS), C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC). The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection. Tshering Dolma, Reena Mukherjee, B. K. Pati, and U. K. De Copyright © 2014 Tshering Dolma et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria Tue, 18 Nov 2014 11:32:50 +0000 The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Ibukunoluwa Olaniyan, Phyllis Ezewele, and Oluwasanmi Aina Copyright © 2014 Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model Wed, 12 Nov 2014 09:55:35 +0000 Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both. S. Rochelle Lewis, Siobhan P. Ellison, John J. Dascanio, David S. Lindsay, Robert M. Gogal Jr., Stephen R. Werre, Naveen Surendran, Meghan E. Breen, Bettina M. Heid, Frank M. Andrews, Virginia A. Buechner-Maxwell, and Sharon G. Witonsky Copyright © 2014 S. Rochelle Lewis et al. All rights reserved. The Immunology of Mammary Gland of Dairy Ruminants between Healthy and Inflammatory Conditions Mon, 10 Nov 2014 06:36:54 +0000 The health of dairy animals, particularly the milk-producing mammary glands, is essential to the dairy industry because of the crucial hygienic and economic aspects of ensuring production of high quality milk. Due to its high prevalence, mastitis is considered the most important threat to dairy industry, due to its impacts on animal health and milk production and thus on economic benefits. The MG is protected by several defence mechanisms that prevent microbial penetration and surveillance. However, several factors can attenuate the host immune response (IR), and the possession of various virulence and resistance factors by different mastitis-causing microorganisms greatly limits immune defences and promotes establishment of intramammary infections (IMIs). A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques. Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions. In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations. Mohamed Ezzat Alnakip, Marcos Quintela-Baluja, Karola Böhme, Inmaculada Fernández-No, Sonia Caamaño-Antelo, Pillar Calo-Mata, and Jorge Barros-Velázquez Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Ezzat Alnakip et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers Thu, 06 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1–7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites. Bharathalingam Sinniah, Muniandy Narasiman, Saequa Habib, and Ong Gaik Bei Copyright © 2014 Bharathalingam Sinniah et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria Wed, 05 Nov 2014 06:40:58 +0000 The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites) in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont) of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study. H. A. Umar, I. A. Lawal, O. O. Okubanjo, and A. M. Wakawa Copyright © 2014 H. A. Umar et al. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:34:40 +0000 As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. Olubukola Deborah Adedipe, Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, and Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus Copyright © 2014 Olubukola Deborah Adedipe et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Common Anaesthetic and Clinical Indices of Multimodal Therapy of Propofol, Xylazine, and Ketamine in Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in West African Dwarf Goat Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The assessment of anaesthetic and clinical indices of multimodal therapy of propofol, xylazine, and ketamine was done in West African Dwarf (WAD) goat. Sixteen healthy male WAD goats were assigned into four treatment groups, namely, control (group A) (ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group B (propofol 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group C (propofol 5 mg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg), and group D (propofol 2.5 mg/kg + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg). All drugs were administered intravenously. The multimodal therapy decreased significantly () the heart rate in groups A, B, and D. Also respiratory rate significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and D but significantly () increased at 20 min after induction in group C. However, temperature significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and C. The induction was good and smooth in groups B and D. Surgical anaesthetic time was longer in groups B and D and shorter in group C. The quality of recovery was good in groups B and D. Side effects such as salivation and apnoea were observed in all groups. In conclusion, the multimodal therapy could be used successfully. However, group D could be the best combination considering the parameters measured. Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili, Eze Chinedu Athanasius, and Udegbunam Rita Ijeoma Copyright © 2014 Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili et al. All rights reserved.