Table of Contents
Journal of Waste Management
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 439071, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/439071
Research Article

Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 41001, Nigeria

Received 30 July 2014; Accepted 17 September 2014; Published 25 September 2014

Academic Editor: Milva Pepi

Copyright © 2014 Joy O. Iwuagwu and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. United Stated Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, “Oil Seeds: World Markets and Trade,” 2011, http://www.fas.usda.gov/.
  2. E. I. Ohimain, A. A. Oyedeji, and S. C. Izah, “Employment effects of smallholder oil palm processing plants in Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria,” International Journal of Applied Research and Technology, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 83–93, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. E. I. Ohimain, C. Daokoru-Olukole, S. C. Izah, and E. E. Alaka, “Assessment of the quality of crude palm oil produced by smallholder processors in Rivers State, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, vol. 8, pp. 28–34, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. IndexMundi, Index Palm Oil Production by Country in 1000 MT, 2013, http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?commodity=palm-oil&graph=production.
  5. V. O. Nwaugo, G. C. Chinyere, and C. U. Inyang, “Effects of palm oil mill effluents (POME) on soil bacterial flora and enzyme activities in Egbama,” Plant Product Research Journal, vol. 12, pp. 10–13, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. O. Chavalparit, W. H. Rulkens, A. P. J. Mol, and S. Khaodhair, “Options for environmental sustainability of the crude palm oil industry in Thailand through enhancement of industrial ecosystems,” Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 271–287, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. L. Ahmad, S. Ismail, and S. Bhatia, “Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology,” Desalination, vol. 157, no. 1–3, pp. 87–95, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. I. Ohimain and S. C. Izah, “Water minimization and optimization by small-scale palm oil mill in Niger Delta, Nigeria,” Journal of Water Research, vol. 135, pp. 190–198, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. O. I. Osemwota, “Effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 167, no. 1–4, pp. 399–404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. S. Madaki1 and L. Seng, “Pollution control: how feasible is zero discharge concepts in Malaysia palm oil mills,” American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 2, pp. 239–252, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. O-Thong, C. Mamimin, and P. Prasertsan, “Effect of temperature and initial pH on biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent: Long-term evaluation and microbial community analysis,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Choorit and P. Wisarnwan, “Effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 376–385, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. D. Najafpour, A. A. L. Zinatizadeh, A. R. Mohamed, M. Hasnain Isa, and H. Nasrollahzadeh, “High-rate anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent in an upflow anaerobic sludge-fixed film bioreactor,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 370–379, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. N. Ma, “Environmental management for the oil palm industry,” Palm Oil Development, vol. 30, pp. 1–10, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  15. O. L. Okwute and N. R. Isu, “Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial density and ammonium oxidizers in a dumpsite in Anyigba, Kogi State,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 116–119, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. O. Awotoye, A. C. Dada, and G. A. O. Arawomo, “Impact of palm oil processing effluent discharge on the quality of receiving soil and river in south western Nigeria,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. I. N. Ezemonye, D. F. Ogeleka, and F. E. Okieimen, “Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. C. Igwe, C. O. Onyegbado, and A. A. Abia, “Studies on the kinetics and intraparticle diffusivities of BOD, colour and TSS reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash,” African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 392–400, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. K. K. Chin, S. W. Lee, and H. H. Mohammad, “A study of palm oil mill effluent treatment using a pond system,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 119–123, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. I. A. Karim and A. Q. A. Kamil, “Biological treatment of palm oil mill effluent using Trichoderma viride,” Biological Wastes, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 143–152, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Yacob, M. A. Hassan, Y. Shirai, M. Wakisaka, and S. Subash, “Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment,” Chemosphere, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1575–1581, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. L. Ahmad, S. Bhatia, N. Ibrahim, and S. Sumathi, “Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder,” Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 371–379, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. L. Ahmad, M. F. Chong, S. Bhatia, and S. Ismail, “Drinking water reclamation from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology,” Desalination, vol. 191, no. 1–3, pp. 35–44, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. O. Ugwuanyi, “Yield and protein quality of thermophilic Bacillus spp. biomass related to thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal feed supplementation,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 3279–3290, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Federici, F. Fava, N. Kalogerakis, and D. Mantzavinos, “Valorisation of agro-industrial by-products, effluents and waste: concept, opportunities and the case of olive mill waste waters,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 895–900, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Department of Environment, Industrial Processes & The Environmental—Crude Palm Oil Industry, Ministry of Sciences, Technology and the Environment, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 1999.
  27. M. C. Hadiyanto, M. M. Azimatun Nur, and G. D. Hartano, “Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as biofuel sources in palm oil mill effluent (POME),” International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 45–49, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Christwardana and D. Soetrisnanto, “Phytoremediations of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by using aquatic plants and microalge for biomass production,” Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 79–90, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. S. Chooklin, S. Phertmean, B. Cheirsilp, S. Maneerat, and A. Saimmai, “Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3,” Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 167–176, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Salihu, M. Z. Alam, M. I. AbdulKarim, and H. M. Salleh, “Suitability of using palm oil mill effluent as a medium for lipase production,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 2044–2052, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Fadzilah and M. D. Mashitah, “Cellulases production in palm oil mill effluent: effect of aeration and agitation,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 24, pp. 3307–3312, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. P. Teoh and M. D. Mashitah, “Cellulase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus on oil palm residues through pretreatment and optimization study,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1036–1043, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. S. Rashid, M. Z. Alam, M. I. A. Karim, and M. H. Salleh, “Management of palm oil mill effluent through production of cellulases by filamentous fungi,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2219–2226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Sulaiman, M. R. Zakaria, M. A. Hassan, Y. Shirai, and Z. Busu, “Co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and refined glycerin wash water for chemical oxygen demand removal and methane production,” The American Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 639–646, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. T. Y. Wu, A. W. Mohammad, J. M. Jahim, and N. Anuar, “Investigations on protease production by a wild-type Aspergillus terreus strain using diluted retentate of pre-filtered palm oil mill effluent (POME) as substrate,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1223–1229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Y. Wu, A. W. Mohammad, J. M. Jahim, and N. Anuar, “Optimized reuse and bioconversion from retentate of pre-filtered palm oil mill effluent (POME) into microbial protease by Aspergillus terreus using response surface methodology,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1390–1396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Jamal, M. Z. Alam, M. Ramlan, M. Salleh, and M. M. Nadzir, “Screening of Aspergillus for citric acid production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent,” Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 275–278, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. S. Kalil, P. W. Kit, W. M. W. Yusoff, Y. Sadazo, and R. A. Rahman, “Direct fermentation of palm oil mill effluent to acetone- butanol-ehtanol by solvent producing Clostridia,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 1273–1275, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. C. P. Kurtzman and J. W. Fell, Eds., The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 4th edition, 1998.
  40. M. Irfan, M. I. Nazir, M. Nadeem, M. Gulsher, Q. Syed, and S. Baig, “Optimization of process parameters for the production of single cell biomass of Candida utilis in solid state fermentation,” The American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, vol. 10, pp. 264–270, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  41. American Public Health Association (APHA), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA, 19th edition, 1995.
  42. J. Folch, M. Lees, and G. H. Sloane-Stanley, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues,” The Journal of Biology and Chemistry, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 497–509, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. Horwitz and G. W. Latimer Jr., Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, Revision 3, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 18th edition, 2010.
  44. A. Walkley and I. A. Black, “An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method,” Soil Science, vol. 37, pp. 29–38, 1945. View at Google Scholar
  45. FAO/WHO, “Protein quality evaluation,” Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. L. Hemming, “A viable solution to the palm oil effluent problem,” in Proceedings of the Malaysian International Symposium on Palm Oil Processing and Marketing, D. A. Earp and W. Newall, Eds., pp. 79–95, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 1977.
  47. A. N. Ma, The Planters, Kuala Lumpur Innovations in Management of Palm Oil Mill Effluent, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM), 1999.
  48. P. F. Rupani, R. P. Singh, H. Ibrahim, and N. Esa, “Review of current Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment methods: vermicomposting as a sustainable practice,” World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 11, pp. 70–81, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  49. International Finance Corporation (IFC), Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines for Vegetable Oil Processing, World Bank Group, 2007.
  50. N. Oswal, P. M. Sarma, S. S. Zinjarde, and A. Pant, “Palm oil mill effluent treatment by a tropical marine yeast,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 35–37, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Z. Alam, P. Jamal, and M. M. Nadzir, “Bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent for citric acid production: statistical optimization of fermentation media and time by central composite design,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1177–1185, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. W. Barker and J. T. Worgan, “The utilisation of palm oil processing effluents as substrates for microbial protein production by the fungus Aspergillus oryzae,” European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 234–240, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Saenge, B. Cheirsilp, T. T. Suksaroge, and T. Bourtoom, “Efficient concomitant production of lipids and carotenoids by oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis cultured in palm oil mill effluent and application of lipids for biodiesel production,” Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. O. Nwuche, H. Aiyoaji, and J. C. Ogbonna, “Citric acid production from cellulase-digested palm oil mill effluent,” Asian Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 51–60, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar