Journal of Waste Management / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Human Hair “Waste” and Its Utilization: Gaps and Possibilities

Table 1

Geographical spread, historical age, and scale of human hair uses in practice.

UseCountries in which presentAge and scalea of use

Wigs, hair extensions, eyebrows, beard, and so forthProduction: India, China, Korea, Tunisia, Italy, Russia, Bangladesh, and Pakistan
Market: USA, UK, Africa, Japan, China, and Italy (almost every country)
Centuries old; very large scale

FertilizerChina, India, and USACenturies old (recent in USA); medium scale (few villages/towns)

Pest repellentIndia, USA, and MauritiusCenturies old; small scale

Clay reinforcementIndia, Bangladesh, Syria, and EuropeCenturies old; medium scale

Oil-water separationUSA, Philippines15 years; medium scale

Stuffing toys, furniture, mattresses, and so forthIndia, USA, Hawaii, and few European countriesA century old; medium scale

Fabric makingChina, IndiaFew centuries old; medium scale

ArtworkPast: China, England, USA, Prussia, France, Italy, and Scandinavian countries
Present: China, USA
China, 1000 years, Europe, 200 years, and recent revival, 20 years; small scale

Hydrolyzed protein (HHKP)USA, Europe20 years; small scale

Extracting amino acidsIndia, China, Korea, and Europe 40 years; medium scale

Ethnomedicinal uses China, IndiaCenturies old; small scale, carbonizedhair medium scale

Suturing materialEurope, India, China, and TurkeyEurope, 5 centuries, others, 50 years; very small scale

Testing material for hair care productsEurope, USA100 years; small-medium scale

Cosmetic brushesIndia, USA40 years; small-medium scale

HygroscopeIndia, China, USA, and Romania200 years; very small scale

Nesting material for birdsUSA, EuropeIn nature, centuries, by humans, 50 years; small scale

RopesAmerica, Japan100 years, small scale

Musical instrumentPhilippinesCenturies old, very small scale

Oil filterChina, Europe100–50 years ago, medium scale

Large scale: millions of kg; medium scale: thousands of Kg; small scale: ~100 kg.

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