Table of Contents
Laser Chemistry
Volume 6, Issue 6, Pages 381-389

Free Rotor Styrylcyanine Chromogens

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt

Received 22 October 1985

Copyright © 1986 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fluorescence spectra (maximum wavelength λF) and fluorescence quantum yields (φF) were measured for four structurally related styrylcyanine chromogens of the pyridinium and quinolinium type (1–4) in different solvents at ambient temperature and 77 K. The response of λF and φF values to changes in solvent polarity, solvent hydrogen bonding donor strength, viscosity and temperature was a sensitive function of chromogen structure. The sensitivities of the λF and φF values correlate with the degree of charge transfer character of the S1,CT state; Stokes shift of fluorescence was progressively decreased while φF value was enhanced as the CT character of S1,CT state increases. Moreover, a large edge-excitation red shift was observed in ethanol glass at 77 K. The dominant photophysical features for these dyes are discussed in terms of strong emission from an intramolecular CT state characterized by different solvation sites indicated by the observation of the excitation-wavelength dependent phenomenon in ethanol at 77 K and an important non-radiative decay channel involving rotation of the different parts of molecules leading to a more relaxed weakly fluorescent S1,CT created in fluid media. The viscosity dependence of fluorescence properties (a marked increase in φF was observed with increasing viscosity) suggests that these dyes can be useful reporters of microviscosity for different sites in various organized assemblies. Moreover, it was suggested that increasing H-bonding donor strength of the solvent activates a rotatory non-radiative decay channel probably by localizing charge densities and decreasing CT nature of the S1,CT state.