Table 5: Selection of dopants for ZnO and the aim of doping, together with transfer factors of dopant composition from the PLD target into the thin film, as determined by RBS and PIXE analysis of at least five different films for each dopant [6, 93]. DMS stands for diluted magnetic semiconductor which is still challenging, as well as stable and reproducible p-type conductivity in ZnO.

Dopant
in ZnO
Aim of dopingTransfer factor from
target into thin film

Lip-type conductivity 1 . 3 7 ± 0 . 7 2
Np-type conductivityN/A
Mghigher band gap 1 . 8 6 ± 0 . 4 9
Aln-type conductivity 1 . 5 6 ± 0 . 4 4
Pp-type conductivity 0 . 5 0 ± 0 . 0 1
TiDMS 1 . 1 5 ± 0 . 4 3
MnDMS 1 . 0 3 ± 0 . 2 8
FeDMS 1 . 4 7 ± 0 . 1 6
CoDMS 1 . 2 3 ± 0 . 0 9
NiDMS 0 . 1 5 ± 0 . 0 2
CuDMS 0 . 7 4 ± 0 . 2 5
Gan-type conductivity 1 . 5 4 ± 1 . 0 4
Cdlower band gap 0 . 0 9 ± 0 . 1 2
Sbp-type conductivity 1 . 7 1 ± 0 . 3 2