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Stimulated Raman Scattering of X-Mode Laser in a Plasma Channel
Stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) of an intense X-mode laser pump in a preformed parabolic plasma density profile is investigated. The laser pump excites a plasma wave and one/two electromagnetic sideband waves. In Raman forward scattering, the growth rate of the parametric instability scales as two-third powers of the pump amplitude and increases linearly with cyclotron frequency.
Elimination of Secondary Neutrons from Laser Proton-Boron Fusion
For low carbon energy generation, a very large exchange of electricity generators is existentially vital within the next number of years by power stations preferably at considerably low cost than the present installations. When considering the million times higher nuclear energy per reaction than chemical, the usual hydrogen fusion with abundant boron fuel is used for environmentally clean electricity generators. Instead of usually needed ignition temperatures of hundreds of million degrees Celsius, it is possible to use nonthermal ignition pressures from now available CPA laser pulses. In this non-LTE scheme, there is no need for high compression, the medium of hydrogen-boron-11 temperatures is low, and therefore the bremsstrahlung losses practically do not exist. The neutron, created by secondary reactions, elimination device includes tin and is arranged such that the neutrons are brought to nuclear reactions with the tin. We suggest adding the tin that has proven to be particularly advantageous because of its high effective cross section, and the neutron reactions with tin transform the tin nuclei into stable nuclei with a higher atomic weight.
Stopping Power Modulation by Pump Waves of Charged Particles Moving above Two-Dimensional Electron Gases
The perturbation electron density and stopping power caused by the movement of charged particles above two-dimensional quantum electron gases (2DQEG) have been studied in numerous works using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory. In this paper, the QHD is modified by introducing the two-dimensional electron exchange-correlation potential at high density and the pump wave modulations. Based on the modified QHD, the perturbation electron density and stopping power are calculated for pump waves with various parameters. The results show that the stopping power values are more accurate after considering . Under the modulation of pump waves with the wavelength from to , the perturbation electron density of 2DQEG and the stopping power of charged particles show periodic changes. Under the modulation of pump waves with cm and , the average stopping power with respect to the time phase becomes negative, which means that the charged particles will gain energy and can be accelerated. This is a new phenomenon in the fields of 2DQEG and of great significance in surface physics and surface modification in nanoelectronic devices with beam matter interactions.
The Charge State of Protons with 90 and 100 keV Energies Decelerated in Hydrogen Plasma
Energy loss of protons with 90 and 100 keV energies penetrating through a hydrogen plasma target has been measured, where the electron density of the plasma is about 1016 cm−3 and the electron temperature is about 1-2 eV. It is found that the energy loss of protons in the plasma is obviously larger than that in cold gas and the experimental results based on the Bethe model calculations can be demonstrated by the variation of effective charge of protons in the hydrogen plasma. The effective charge remains 1 for 100 keV protons, while the value for 90 keV protons decreases to be about 0.92. Moreover, two empirical formulae are employed to extract the effective charge.
An Axial Foilless Diode Guided by Composite Magnetic Field for the Production of Relativistic Electron Beams
Foilless diode are widely used in high-power microwave devices, but the traditional foilless diodes have large volume, heavy weight, and high power consumption, which are not conducive to the application of high-power microwave system on mobile platform. In order to reduce the size of the foilless diode, improve the transmission efficiency of electron beams, and reduce the weight and power consumption of the guiding magnetic field system, an axial foilless diode with a composite guiding magnetic field system is developed in this paper. By adjusting the structure size and magnetic field parameters of solenoid coil, permanent magnet, and soft magnet, the configuration of the composite magnetic field is optimized. The diameter of the anode tube is about 40% smaller than that of the original structure, and the weight and power consumption of the guiding magnetic system are about 40% lower than that of the original system when the same axial magnetic field intensity in the uniform region is generated. When the magnetic field strength of the permanent magnet is set as 1.4 T and that of the solenoid coil is in the range of 0.5 T∼1 T, the electron beam transmission efficiency is 100%, and the diode impedance is adjustable in the range of 100 Ω∼240 Ω. The experimental results verify the correctness of the simulation analysis. The experimental results show that when the magnetic field strength of the solenoid coil is 0.98 T (0.5 T) and that of the permanent magnet is 1.4 T, the transmission efficiency of the high-current annular electron beam with a peak voltage of 636 kV (590 kV) and a peak current of 3.3 kA (2.6 kA) is 100%, and the diode impedance is about 194 Ω (220 Ω).
Terahertz Radiation from a Plasma Cylinder with External Radial Electric and Axial Magnetic Fields
Terahertz (THz) radiation from a plasma cylinder with embedded radial electric and axial magnetic fields is investigated. The plasma density and the electric and magnetic fields are such that the electron plasma frequency is near the electron cyclotron frequency and in the THz regime. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the plasma electrons oscillate not only in the azimuthal direction but also in the radial direction. Spectral analysis shows that the resulting oscillating current pattern has a clearly defined characteristic frequency near the electron cyclotron frequency, suggesting resonance between the cyclotron and plasma oscillations. The resulting far-field THz radiation in the axial direction is also discussed.