Figure 5: VPA and ATRA modify the release of diffusible mediators from endothelial cells. Concentrations of soluble mediators were determined in HUVEC culture supernatants after treatment with different doses of VPA or ATRA for 5 days. Colorimetric ELISA kits and a Luminex assay using multianalyte profiling beads were utilised to determine the different mediator concentrations in duplicate samples after treatment with (a) VPA and (b) ATRA. The results are presented as the mean percent alteration (duplicate samples) of mediator concentrations found in treated cultures compared with their respective drug-free control cultures containing 0.9% NaCl (VPA control) or ethanol (ATRA control).